Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.
Author Item Excerpt Meta data
Millikan, Ruth
Books on Amazon
Reference I 106
Reference/Millikan: the sentence sense depends on much more fundamental types of relations than the correspondence or reference.
For example, the relation of a true sentence to what it maps in the world cannot be analyzed as a reference, just as e.g. "blood pumping" cannot be analyzed as "blood pumping". ((s) > naturalistic fallacy).
I 113
Referent/Millikan: referent is a complex term.
1. Index words: here the referent is context-dependent.
2. In some contexts the normal referent is replaced by another: e.g quotation marks, intentional contexts.
3. Protoreferent: see below, Chapter 13.
Definition Referent/Millikan: if there is something definite and real existent, on which an expression is to map, then this is the referent.
But this does not have to be an object.
I 199
Reference/Image/Identity/Millikan: "A is B" is a non-representative sentence. The element "A" is as much related to its real-value as an element of a e.g. bee dance on its real value.
N.B.: of the values is assumed in neither of the two cases that they are identified. That is, we are not dealing with reference but with protoreference:
Definition Protoreference/Millikan: e.g. Protoreferent of "A" and "B" in "A is B" are the lowest types of "A" and "B".

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-04-25