Books on Amazon
Coincidence/necessity/life/individual/Monod/own: the individual owes his life to a chain of conserved coincidences.
Only the mechanism of the macroscopic expression of these "microscopic" coincidences is necessary.
Life/Monod: Teleonomy (superordinate purpose) is necessary for a definition, but not sufficient.
One needed a program that explores not only the present object, but also its origin, history and structure.
Life owes almost nothing to the influence of external forces! Its structure proves a clear self-determination, which includes a quasi "total freedom" opposed to external forces and conditions.
On the basis of this criterion, however, the crystals would have to be classified among the living creatures!
Life/Monod: up to now there are three criteria:
1. Teleonomy (proteins)
2. Autonomous morphogenesis
3. reproductive invariance. (Nucleic acids)
But the three do not have the same status: While teleonomy and invariability are actually characteristic "properties" of the living beings, the spontaneous construction must be regarded as a mechanism.
Life/Monod: 1. All living beings consist without exception of the same two main classes of macromolecules, made up of proteins and nucleic acids.
Proteins: are made up of twenty amino acids
Nucleic acids: made up of four types of nucleotides.
2. The same reaction sequences are used in all living beings for the same essential chemical operations. Mobilization and reserve formation of the chemical potential and biosynthesis of the cell components.
Differences: Nitrogen excretion happens in mammals via urea, in birds via uric acid.
Zufall und Notwendigkeit Hamburg 1982