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Circular/Circularity/Duhem: Often an analogy is quite superficial: it consists only between the words, but not between the thoughts. Nothing but word games.
E.g. the expression entropy has only a meaning in the language of the physicist.
Euler commits a circular conclusion: Definition: A power is the force that brings a body from rest to movement ...
DuhemVsEuler: Will Euler take way the very former sense of the word power, and give a simple word definition, whose arbitrariness is limited by nothing? (> Definition) word definition arbitrary) ..
Euler has force or used in the everyday sense
It is much less a definition than a theorem, to which Euler ascribes obviousness, it is an axiom.
DuhemVs: we would say instead:
A body which is not subject to any force remains immobile.
A body subjected to a constant force moves at a constant velocity.
If the force with which a body is moved is increased, one increases the speed of this body.
Thus are the characteristic properties which the ordinary mind ascribes to force or power. Thus are the hypotheses, which should become the basis of the dynamics, if one wanted to found this science upon that which seems to be self-evident to the ordinary mind.
Euler's circular conclusion cannot be avoided by those who believe that the hypotheses have to be justified by generally accepted axioms.
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998