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Effect/Bigelow/ Pargetter: one and the same effect could have had different causes. E.g. pregnancy by different men.
Identity/Event/DavidsonVsBigelow: (Davidson 1980) Identity of Events: Thesis: a criterion for identity requires that different causes effect numerically different events.
BigelowVsDavidson: this is wrong, but we do not pursue it further here. But even if he were right, the modal theory of causation ((s) that integrates the necessary and sufficient conditions) would not be saved.
Probability/probabilistic causation/theory/Bigelow/Pargetter. E.g. causing a pregnancy by an almost infertile man - could also be understood as the prevention of parthenogenesis.
(...). - LewisVs: such counterexamples are implausible.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990