Lexicon of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 


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Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Prescriptivism Singer
 
Books on Amazon:
Peter Singer
I 7
Prescriptivism/P. SingerVsPrescriptivism/SingerVsHare: es geht uns nicht darum, wie die Vorschriften sind, sondern was die Menschen tun.


Sing I
Peter Singer
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011

Sing II
P. Singer
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015

Speech Act Theory Hare
 
Books on Amazon
Searle V 207
SearleVsTraditional speech act analysis. (SearleVsAustin, SearleVsHare) Thesis: "good" and "true" mean in different acts the same. They are not taken into account by traditional speech act theory) Good/True/Speech act theory/Tradition: Hare: E.g. "Good" is used to recommend something.
Strawson: "True" is used to reaffirm or acknowledge statements.
Austin: "Knowledge" is needed to give guarantees. (SearleVs).
In principle: "the word W is used to perform the speech act A".


S I
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996

S II
J.R. Searle
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991

S III
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997

S IV
J.R. Searle
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983

The author or concept searched is found in the following 5 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Austin, John L. Searle Vs Austin, John L.
 
Books on Amazon:
John R. Searle
SearleVs Traditional Speech act analysis. (SearleVsAustin,SearleVsHare) Thesis: "Good", "true" mean the same in different acts. Ignored by the traditional speech act theory)
good/true/speech act theory/tradition: Hare: E.g. "Good" is used to recommend something.
Strawson: "True" is used to confirm or acknowledge statements.
Austin: "Knowledge" is used to provide guarantees. (SearleVs).
In principle: "the word W is used to perform the speech act A".
- - -
IV 17
illocutionary act/Austin: five categories: verdictive, expositive, exercitive, conductive, commissive) speech acts/SearleVsAustin: Distinction between illocutionary role and expression with propositional content:
R(p).
The various acts performed in different continua! There are at least 12 important dimensions.
IV 18
1. Differences in joke (purpose) of the act. (However, not to every act a purpose has to belong).
IV 19
The illocutionary joke is part of the role, but both are not the same. E.g. a request may have the same joke as a command. 2. Differences in orientation (word to the world or vice versa).
Either, the world needs to match the words, or vice versa.
IV 20
Example by Elizabeth Anscombe: Shopping list with goods, the same list is created by the store detective.
IV 21
3. Differences in the expressed psychological states E.g. to hint, to regret, to swear, to threaten. (Even if the acts are insincere).
Def sincerity condition/Searle: You cannot say, "I realize that p but I do not believe that p." "I promise that p but I do not intend that p"
The mental state is the sincerity condition of the act.
IV 22
These three dimensions: joke, orientation, sincerity condition are the most important. 4. Differences in the strength with which the illocutionary joke is raised.
E.g. "I suggest", "I swear"
5. Differences in the position of speaker and listener
E.g. the soldier will make not aware the general of the messy room.
IV 23
6. Differences of in which the utterance relates to what is in the interest of speaker and listener. E.g. whining, congratulating
7. Difference in relation to the rest of the discourse
E.g. to contradict, to reply, to conclude.
8. Differences in propositional content, resulting from the indicators of the illocutionary role
E.g. report or forecasts
IV 24
9. Differences between those acts that must always be speech acts, and those that can be carried out differently. E.g. you need not to say anything to classify something, or to diagnose
10. Differences between those acts, for which the extra-linguistic institutions are needed, and those for which they are not necessary
E.g. wedding, blessing, excommunication
IV 25
11. Differences between acts where the illocutionary verb has a performative use and those where this is not the case E.g. performative use: to state, to promise, to command no performative: "I hereby boast", "hereby I threaten".
12. differences in style
E.g. announcing, entrustment.
IV 27
SearleVsAustin: the list does not refer to acts but to verbs. One must distinguish between verb and act!
E.g. one can proclaim commands, promises, reports but that is something else, as to command, to announce or to report.
A proclamation is never merely a proclamation, it also needs to be a determination, a command or the like.
IV 30
Searle: E.g.iIf I make you chairman, I do not advocate that you chairman
IV 36
Def Declaration/Searle: the successful performance guarantees that the propositional content of the world corresponds. (Later terminology: "institutional facts) Orientation: by the success of the declaration word and world match to each other () No sincerity. Overlapping with assertive:... The referee's decisions. SearleVsAustin: Vs Distinction constative/performative.
- - -
VII 86
Cavell: "Must we mean what we say?" defends Austin and adds: The deviation can be "really or allegedly" present.
Austin: it is neither true nor false that I write this article voluntarily, because if there is no deviation, the concept of free will is not applicable.
SearleVsAustin: that's amazing.
VII 88
SearleVsAustin: Five theses to see Austin in a different light: 1. Austin exemplifies an analysis pattern that is common today as it is also used at Ryles' analysis of "voluntarily".
Ryle thesis of "voluntary" and "involuntary" can be applied only to acts, "you should not have done." Again, it is absurd to use it in an ordinary use.
VII 89
Neither true nor false: Wittgenstein: e.g. that I "know that I am in pain" E.g. that Moore knows he has two hands. etc. (> certainty).
Austin: E.g. it is neither true nor false, that I went out of free will to the session.
VII 90
The use of "voluntary" required certain conditions are not met here. Words in which they are not met, we can call "A-words", the conditions
"A-Conditions". We can create a list.
2. the conditions that are exemplified by the slogan "No modification without deviation", penetrate the whole language and are not limited to certain words.
E.g. The President is sober today.
Hans breathes. etc.
VII 91
3. Negation/Searle: the negation of an A-word is not in turn an A-word! E.g. I bought my car not voluntarily, I was forced to.
I did not volunteer, I was dragged here.
He does not know whether the object in front of him is a tree.
Considerable asymmetry between A-words and their opposite or negation.
VII 92
SearleVsAustin: according to him, in both cases a deviation is required. 4. A deviation is generally a reason to believe that the claim that is made by the statement to the contrary is true, or could have been, or at least could have been held by someone as true.
An A-condition is simply a reason to believe that the remark could have been false.
SearleVsAustin: his presentation is misleading because it suggests that any deviation justifies a modification.
E.g. if I buy a car while strumming with bare toes on a guitar, which is indeed a different way to buy a car, but it does not justify the remark "He bought his car voluntarily."
VII 93
SearleVsAustin: we can come to any list of A-words, because if word requires a deviation, will depend on the rest of the sentence and on the context. Then Austin's thesis is not about words but about propositions.
VII 94
Standard situation/circumstances/SearleVsAustin: notice that there is a standard situation, is to suggest that this fact is remarkable and that there is reason to believe that it could also be a non-standard situation.
VII 95
SearleVsAustin: his thesis even is not on propositions: to make an assertion means to specify that something is the case. If the possibility that the situation does not exist, is excluded, it is meaningless. Austin's slogan should be formulated to:
"No comment, which is not remarkable" or
"No assertion that is not worth to be claimed".
VII 96
SearleVsAustin: this one has seen it wrong. This is connected with the concept of intention: Intention/Searle: Thesis: the oddity or deviation which is a condition for the utterance
"X was deliberately done" represents, at the same time provides a reason for the truth of the statement by
"X was not done intentionally".
assertion condition/utterance condition: it is the utterance condition of an assertion precisely because it is one reason for the truth of the other.
SearleVsAustin: the data must be explained in terms of the applicability of certain terms. So my view is simple and plausible.
(VII 98): In Austin's slogan "No modification without deviation" it is not about the applicability of these terms, but rather about conditions for putting up claims generally.
Negation/SearleVsAustin: then the negations of the above, are not neither true nor false, but simply false!
E.g. I did not go voluntarily to the meeting (I was dragged). etc.
VII 98
Example The ability to remember ones name is one of the basic conditions ...

S I
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996

S II
J.R. Searle
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991

S III
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997

S IV
J.R. Searle
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983
Hare, R.M. Prior Vs Hare, R.M.
 
Books on Amazon
I 65
Command/Prior: giving a command is different from the command and the imperative sentence is yet something else (because a command can be expressed differently). And yet another thing is what the command is about. (For example, about the window that is to be closed).
Ontology/Command: should we then say that the equipment of the universe contains something else, "objective commands", apart from command expressions and windows, imperative sentences?
Objective Command/Prior: two things can be said about this:
a) that someone explains it, i.e. they are the object of commanding, they constitute what is being commanded
b) that they are not forming or binding
c) that they are obeyed. (Ad c) see below)
I 66
Command/Relation/Brackets/Prior: ad a) the common notion that a command is a relation between a commanding person and something that is commanded can be eliminated through proper brackets. Instead of "X commands us/to close the door"
""X commands us to"/"close door".
Here, "commands us to" is not a two-digit predicate, but rather an operator that forms a sentence from a name on the one hand, and from an imperative sentence on the other.
Facts/Ramsey: "There are facts": logical form: "for some p, ". (Special character)
Standards/Prior: analog we could write if there are any standards at all "for some ".
Problem: as far as this is at all comprehensible, it would be a command and not a sentence! Namely the most general command: "Do something."
And so general that even doing nothing would be a case of doing something. (?).
But that does not yet destroy the analogy.
Unlike facts: here it would be impossible that there was any fact, because at least this finding would correspond to a fact, it would then be a fact that there are no facts and that would be a fact, i.e. there must be at least one fact.
I 68
Command/Prior: analog, the command to do something is binding, if any command is binding, even the command to do nothing! It follows that doing nothing could not be binding (in the broad sense of "doing").
But while the command to do something is a necessary command in the sense that it is a command which is binding, if any command is binding, it is therefore also a trivial command like necessary truths as when it rains, it rains or the truth that there is truth. This is trivial.
That is certainly not what people think who insist on "absolute moral standards".
Command/Existence/Indicative/Imperative/Objectivity/Prior: Problem: E.g. "There are commands that have never been expressed and will never be expressed."
Analog: indicative sentence: "There are facts (true propositions) that were never asserted and will never be asserted.
Ramsey: "For some p, p, although it was never asserted and never will be."
analog: imperative sentence: "For some a ("do a"), even though a was never commanded, not will be".
Contradiction: This command has the particularity of being unspecifianble!
Indicative sentence: E.g. "537 + 86251 = 86788 has never been asserted": This does not diminish the truth or plausibility of the sentence.
Is that also true for the (binding) command?
I 69
E.g. "The command to close the door, was binding before anyone expressed it" or "You should have closed the door before someone told you"
according to common translation principles that would have to be translated as:
""I closed the door before..."
i.e. it is a command to already have done something. (Absurd).
Commands should always refer to the future.
((s) Christian commandments are maxims, not commands.)
Prior: but: "you should have closed the door before someone told you does not sound so absurd at all! And it does not means that you now have an obligation with regard to the past.
Nevertheless, it is not clear how the past tense should be introduced in a command.
Problem: the past tense was precisely supposed to affect the commands here, and not the content.
- - -
Reducing the objectivity of commands on the objectivity of propositions
Command/Requirement/Objectivity/Existence/Prior: A similar problem exists with requirements (non-binding commands).
Falsity/Ramsey: "There are falsities": logical form: "for some p, it is not the case that p".
Analog: can you say "For some a, not a"?
E.g. "Not (close the door)". Is this simply the command to leave the door open?
But that would not be equivalent to the fact that the command to close the door was not binding, but that the opposite, to leave the door open, is binding.
I.e. it would not be a translation of "There are requirements". But rather of "There are binding prohibitions".
Prior: this is again about commanding and not about the content.
I 70
It looks as if we needed something like Hare's neusticon and phrasticon. PriorVsHare: but I see no reason why the phrasticon could not simply be replaced by indicative sentences.
Notation/McKinsey Hofstadter: "!p" ("shriek"): "Let it be the case that p". Or "See to it that p". "Bring forth p".
Prohibition/Negation/Command/Prior: there are two possibilities here:
a) "!not p": see to it that p does not happen"
b) "not (!p)" as: "you need not worry about it".
Past/Command: if the exclamation mark (shriek) can be modified like this by negation, then perhaps also by past operators? E.g. "Previously: !p". You should ensured p.
Such forms could be called "imperatives" rather than commands.
But this is a radical change to our original program.
Our variables are now just those of the old propositions, and the formulas look very different.
E.g. "Do something" can have two forms:
a) "for some p see to it that p"
b) See to it that (for some p, p).
And these two are probably not equivalent!
I 71
Furthermore, none of these is a parallel of the assertion "For some p, p". I.e. "There are facts" so that it is no longer plausible now, to identify this form with "There are standards". With this seems the hope for "objective commands" to have fallen into disrepute.
The objective part of the command is our old friend, the proposition.
If we want to be realists in ethics, only the old way remains.
Introducing "It should be the case that __" as an operator for forming indicative sentences.

Pri I
A. Prior
Objects of thought Oxford 1971

Pri II
Arthur N. Prior
Papers on Time and Tense 2nd Edition Oxford 2003
Hare, R.M. Searle Vs Hare, R.M.
 
Books on Amazon:
John R. Searle
V 207
SearleVsTraditional speech act analysis: (SearleVsAustin,SearleVsHare) Thesis: "Good", "true" means the same in different acts. Ignored by the traditional speech act theory) good/true/speech act theory/tradition: Hare: E.g. "Good" is used to recommend something.
Strawson: "True" is used to confirm or acknowledge statements.
Austin: "Knowledge" is used to provide guarantees. (SearleVsSpeech act theory).

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983
Hare, R.M. Mackie Vs Hare, R.M.
 
Books on Amazon
Stegmüller IV 171
HareVs Objectivist ethics: incomprehensible, what is even meant by "objectivity of values". MackieVsHare: relapse into positivism of the 30's. At that time the question of the foreign soul (Fremdseelisches) was called pointless, as was the one of the difference between the world of phenomenalists and the world of realists.
IV 172
If Hare cannot imagine anything, he should not assume futility, but make arguments against objective values. Objectivity/ethics/Mackie: however, the question of generally recognized measures of value bears a certain level of objectivity.
IV 173
This corresponds to a subjectivism of 2nd order. This is supported by: 1. Relativity argument: we encounter different moral regulatory systems in the world. Objectivism would have to consider all of them wrong but one.
IV 175
2. peculiarity argument (Absonderlichkeitsargument): whoever believes in objective values and norms, must take this belief seriously. This leads to strange entities like "Should Be Done", "Should Be Refrained From" etc. Supporter: Moore: values are "non-natural qualities". They require a special ability of insight. (Detectivism,> Euthyphro, Intuitionism).

Macki I
J. L. Mackie
Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong 1977
Hare, R.M. Newen Vs Hare, R.M.
 
Books on Amazon
NSI 155
"Good"/"Should"/Prescriptivism/Hare: Thesis: these words have even primarily prescriptive meaning. E.g. speaking about a good book, a good exhibition is to recommend these things. (s) VsHare: then it would be conceptually contradictory, e.g. to say of a finished exhibition that it was good. Or e.g. to praise for a sold-out book) Def Secondary Prescriptive/Hare: e.g. "proper", "hardworking". Universalizability/Moral/Hare/Newen/Schrenk: every should-statement contains a principle that this statement is applicable to all exactly similar cases.
E.g. Dagmar is pregnant, you should carry the groceries into her apartment for her. And that is what every healthy person should do who has nothing better to do at the moment.
This universalizability is reminiscent of Kant's categorical imperative which is, however, not linguistically motivated.
NS I 156 HareVsKant: it is the logic of language that imposes the categorical imperative on us.
Moral/Logic/Hare: Thesis: someone who acts contrary to a moral statement does not understand the meaning. Hare: e.g. in a train compartment it says: "Please do not smoke, there are children on board." If the smoker then says, well, I'll smoke next door where there are also children, he did not understand the meaning. On the other hand: e.g. "No smoking!" Such signs were distributed at random in otherwise identical compartments.
Point: there is no universalizable principle. Therefore, the sign expresses no moral should-sentence.
Moral Principles/Principle/Moral/Hare/Newen/Schrenk: Problem: how to generate moral principles. Problem: how to recognize the essential in a situation. E.g. Dagmar is pregnant. Is it necessary for the principle that she could swap roles with her husband? Is imaginability sufficient? VsHare: some authors see a fundamental impossibility when comparing such situations. Universalizability: must also accommodate subjective desires and dislikes. This makes the objective description of situations very difficult.
NS I 157
Utilitarianism/Hare/Newen/Schrenk: Hare is close to utilitarianism in as far as a theory instructs to ensure the fulfillment of the preferences of the greatest number of parties. Universalizability/Generalizability/Moral/Descriptivism/Hare: moral judgments possess their descriptiveness because of their universalizability.
Newen/Schrenk: the descriptive portion then consists of the should-portion along with the situation in which it is expressed.
So moral statements can certainly be assessed as correct or incorrect.

New I
Albert Newen
Analytische Philosophie zur Einführung Hamburg 2005

The author or concept searched is found in the following disputes of scientific camps.
Disputed term/author/ism Pro/Versus
Entry
Reference
Deontology Pro III 71
Ethics / Nagel:. Per deontology: restricts what is allowed to do in the service of both neutral and autonomous values ​​- NagelVs consequentialism / NagelVsHare - consequentialism: only the results are important.