Lexicon of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 


[german]  

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

The author or concept searched is found in the following 6 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Animals Lorenz
 
Books on Amazon
Dawkins I 121
Animal/Lorenz: (The so-called evil) thesis: emphasizes the moderate and fair character of the fights of animals. They fight basically according to rules and prefer the bluff to the deadly seriousness. Submission gestures are recognized by the winner. Animals fight with "gloved fists." DawkinsVsLorenz: this interpretation can be disputed, also the human is not the only being who kills his own fellow-human beings.
In fact, unreserved fighting fury also entails costs.
---
I 125/126
Aggression/Evolutionary stable strategy/ESS/Maynard Smith: Strategy: "Attack when the enemy flees, chase it, when it fights back, run away." Dawkins: this must not be understood as a deliberately developed strategy of the individual!
---
I 126
Definition Evolutionary stable strategy/ESS/Dawkins: an evolutionary stable strategy is one that - if the majority of the members of a population adopts it - cannot be surpassed by any alternative strategy. ---
Page numbers here from the German Edition: K. Lorenz, Das sogenannte Böse Wien, 1963

II 71
Animal/Descartes: an animal does not act but is passive. McDougalVsDescartes/Lorenz: a healthy animal is active.

Lo II
K. Lorenz
On Aggression


Da I
R. Dawkins
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996

Da II
M. St. Dawkins
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993
Behavior Lorenz
 
Books on Amazon
Page numbers here from the German edition: K. Lorenz, Das sogenannte Böse Wien, 1963

II 34
Aggression/Lorenz: two types: A) between different species
B) within one species. (Subject of this book).
---
II 36
"Mobbing"/"hate on"/Lorenz: crows, and other birds "hate on" the owl they have discovered by day: (s) They show their fellow-species by gestures where the enemy is. For example a jay follows the fox screeching through the forest.
This is a passing on of a non-innate knowledge.
---
II 47
Singing/Birds/Lorenz: Birds share, among others things, also the age. ---
II 58
Aggression/Lorenz: Thesis: More than other properties, the aggressive behavior can be exaggerated by its pernicious effect in the grotesque and unsuitable. For us, it is the inheritance of the intraspecific selection, which has lasted over decades.
The evil introspecific selection must be taken.
---
II 72
Stimulus/Reaction/Behavior/Lorenz: Experiments show that (in captivity) the withdrawal of stimuli decreases the threshold for triggering reactions. At the end, a room corner is performed courtship to because it is the only visual point of view. ---
II 81
Aggression/Evolution/Lorenz: The reorientation of the attack is probably the most ingenious source that was created by the species change, in order to divert aggression into harmless pathways. ---
II 91
Behavior/ritualization/Lorenz: e.g. in the insect world, it may be the case that behavior is even be embodied. E.g. robbery or assassination: the suitor hands over a prey to the beloved of the right size so that he can have sexual intercourse with the female during her eating the prey without being eaten himself. ---
II 92
Later generations react only to a corresponding symbol. Congenital understanding. ---
II 93
Behavior/animal/ritualization/Lorenz: it would be a mistake to call ritualized "rushing" an "expression" of love "or the affiliation of the female to the spouse. The independent instinctual movement is not a by-product, not an epiphenomenon of the tie that holds the animals together, but it is itself this tie.
A completely autonomous, new instinct.
---
II 103
Rite/behavior/animal/Lorenz: the most important function is the active drive to social behavior. ---
II 104
New function: communication. ---
II 105
The unification of the variable variety of possibilities of action into a single rigid sequence reduces the danger of ambiguity in the communication. ---
II 108
"Good manners" are those that characterize their own group. ---
II 109
Any deviation causes aggression, so the group is forced to act in a unified way. ---
II 123
Behavioral research/Lorenz: in the heroic time of comparative behavioral research, it was thought that only one instinct dominated this, but exclusively, one animal. J. HuxleyVs: Human and animal are like a ship commanded by many captains.
Animals have this agreement that only one of them can enter the command bridge.
---
Gould I 105
Lorenz's thesis: we do not react to wholenesses or shapes, but to a group of special mechanisms that act as triggers. (Lorenz, 1950 "Ganzheit und Teil") It is well known that birds, in particular, react to abstract features and not to shapes. ---
Gould VIII 34
Aggression/Lorenz: (The so-called Evil): Thesis: Aggression is a species-preserving function. Thus only the most suitable individuals are propagated. DawkinsVsLorenz: Prime example for a circular reasoning. It is also contrary to Darwinism, which he does not seem to have noticed.

Lo II
K. Lorenz
On Aggression

Church-Turing Thesis Lorenzen
 
Books on Amazon
P. Lorenzen Ein dialogisches Konstruktivitätskriterium (1959) in Karel Berka/L. Kreiser Logik Texte Berlin, 1983

Berka I 266
Church thesis/Lorenzen: the thesis is an equation of "constructive" with "recursive". LorenzenVsChurch: too narrow view: thus it no longer permits the free use of the quantification over the natural numbers.
---
I 267
Decision-making problem/ChurchVsLorenzen: (according to Lorenzen): Advantage: greater clarity: when limiting to recursive statements, there can never be a dispute as to whether one of the admitted statements is true or false. The definition of recursiveness guarantees precisely the decision-definition, that is, the existence of a decision-making process. > Decisibility, decision-making problem.

Lorn I
P. Lorenzen
Constructive Philosophy Cambridge 1987


Brk I
K. Berka/L. Kreiser
Logik Texte Berlin 1983
Epistemology Vollmer
 
Books on Amazon
I XX
EE/evolutionary epistemology/Vollmer: Lorenz is the father of the evolutionary epistemology. Precursor: Donald Campbell, Popper, Lorenz - two meanings: Popper: scientific theoretical: evolution of knowledge (interactionist, VsIdentity theory) - Lorenz: Evolution of cognition. (Identity theory) ---
I 16
Knowledge/history/quality/primary/secondary/Vollmer: with increasing progress more and more properties were recognized as subjective - with Locke impenetrability was still a primary quality - today even expansion is not regarded anymore as a primary quality. ---
I 59
Epistemology: is not "reflection" of the outside world - but also not purely algorithmically - in contrast Information/Lorenz embodied : E.g. hoof: "image" of the steppe soil - E.g. fin - "image" of the water - VollmerVsLorenz: misleading terminology - solution : texture of the hoof indicates texture of the soil. ---
I 73
Knowledge/Vollmer: its third level, scientific knowledge is not genetically determined - there are no "biological roots" of the space-time - we are only obliged to consistency - otherwise we are free in forming hypotheses. ---
I 173
Epistemology/tradition/VollmerVsKant: why do we have just these forms of intuition and categories? - How are they formed? - Why are we bound to these a priori judgments and not to others? ---
I 293
Definition He: (1983.30): an adequate reconstruction and identification of external structures in the subject - a) construct an internal image, b) compare the model with the stored engrams c) determine in how far object corresponds to already known - for that memory is required - reconstruction is therefore not a reflection - our concept of knowledge is narrower than any concept of information - Stegmüller: three-digit relation: subject recognizes object as image. ---
I 296
Recognize/Kutschera: the step from ignorance to knowledge - knowledge/Kutschera: only to explicate as true belief - neither truth nor subjectivity is gradable. ---
I 310
Epistemology/Vollmer: Tasks: - explication of terms - investigation of our cognitive abilities, comparing different cognitive systems - distinction of subjective and objective structures, descriptive and normative statements, factual and conventional elements - clarification of the conditions for recognition - demonstration of limits of knowledge.

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988

Knowledge Lorenzen
 
Books on Amazon
Wessel I 346
Modality/Lorenzen/Wessel: it is assumed a certain group of people has accepted a certain system of statements W as true. From these people, all statements which follow logical from these statements are then recognized as true. Lorenzen regards this as meaningful only for future statements.
Knowledge/Lorenzen/Wessel: for Lorenzen, it follows that everything we know is necessary with regard to this knowledge.
Tradition: For example, if we know that in a pea pod are five peas and that it contains protein. This is only the second necessary knowledge. According to Lorenzen, both statements are necessary knowledge. (WesselVsLorenzen).
Modality/WesselVsLorenzen: too broad a view. That all knowledge is supposed to be necessary is a "fatalistic consequence".

Lorn I
P. Lorenzen
Constructive Philosophy Cambridge 1987


We I
H. Wessel
Logik Berlin 1999
Modalities Lorenzen
 
Books on Amazon
Wessel I 347
Modality/Wessel: modality is not a kind of truth value, as often is falsely assumed! Carnap: identifies truth and logical necessity,
Lukasiewicz: has a third truth value "possible"
Lorenzen: uses "possible" and "possibly true" synonymously. WesselVsLorenzen.
Truth value/Wessel: a truth value is a special logical predicate to which statements are pronounced or denied.
The difference between modalities and truth values is obvious: since alethic modalities are only linked to subjects of the form sA (the fact that A) and truth values are linked only to such with those of the form tA (the statement A) to connect statements.
Truth value: is a statement.
Modality: is a fact.

Lorn I
P. Lorenzen
Constructive Philosophy Cambridge 1987


We I
H. Wessel
Logik Berlin 1999

The author or concept searched is found in the following 6 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Church, A. Lorenzen Vs Church, A.
 
Books on Amazon
Berka I 266
Church thesis/Lorenzen: the thesis is an equating of "constructive" with "recursive". (S) so all structures are recursively possible? Or: there is only one recursive structure. (Slightly different meaning).
LorenzenVsChurch: view to narrow: it allows no longer the free use of the quantification of the natural numbers.
---
I 267
decision problem/ChurchVsLorenzen: (according to Lorenzen): Advantage: greater clarity: when limited to recursive statement forms there can never arise dispute whether one of the approved statements is true or false. The definition of recursivity guarantees precisely the decision definiteness, that means the existence of a decision process.

Lorn I
P. Lorenzen
Constructive Philosophy Cambridge 1987

Brk I
K. Berka/L. Kreiser
Logik Texte Berlin 1983
Kamlah, A. Schurz Vs Kamlah, A.
 
Books on Amazon:
Gerhard Schurz
I 28
Intersubjectivity/Objectivity/SchurzVsLorenzen/SchurzVsKamlah: intersubjectivity kann nicht als Definition von objectivity verwendet werden, da Kompetenz ein unsicheres und graduelles Kriterium ist. Alle kompetenten Sprecher können sich irren. Lösung/Peirce: idealisiertes Endresultat.

Schu I
G. Schurz
Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie Darmstadt 2006
Lorenz, K. Pinker Vs Lorenz, K.
 
Books on Amazon
I 613
PinkerVsLorenz, Konrad: submissive gestures are not to protect a species from internal destruction. Error: Evolution is not serving the species. Indeed, it is a bad strategy to fight every battle till the end, because the enemy might be likewise predisposed.

Pi I
St. Pinker
Wie das Denken im Kopf entsteht München 1998
Lorenz, K. Vollmer Vs Lorenz, K.
 
Books on Amazon
I 59
Verkörperung von Information/Lorenz: Thesis: der Pferdehuf ist ein "Abbild" des Steppenbodens, die Flosse ein "Abbild" des umgebenden Wassers, sie "spiegelt" die Gesetze der Hydrodynamik. Verkörperung/VollmerVsLorenz: irreführend, weil es keinen Spiegel, kein Bild und keine Kopie von Boden oder Wasser gibt.
Richtig ist, dass die Beschaffenheit des Pferdehufs Hinweise auf die Beschaffenheit des Bodens gibt.

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988
Lorenzen, P. Wessel Vs Lorenzen, P.
 
Books on Amazon
I 345/346
Gesetze/Wessel: haben immer die logische Form einer formalen Implikation (obwohl nicht alle wahren formalen Implikationen Gesetze darstellen) ((x)(P(x) > Q(x). Als Folgerungen allein daraus erhalten wir niemals Formeln der Form Q(a), wo a eine Individuenkonstante ist.
Modality/Lorenzen/Wessel: angenommen wird, eine bestimmte Menschengruppe hat ein bestimmtes System von Aussagen W als wahr akzeptiert. Von diesen Menschen werden dann auch alle Aussagen als wahr anerkannt, die logisch aus diesen Aussagen folgen.
Lorenzen betrachtet das nur für Zukunftsaussagen als sinnvoll.
Wissen/Lorenzen/Wessel: für Lorenzen ergibt sich daraus, dass alles, was wir wissen, bezüglich dieses Wissens notwendig ist.
Tradition: Bsp wenn wir wissen, dass in einer Erbsenschote fünf Erbsen sind und dass sie Eiweiß enthält. So ist nur das zweite notwendiges Wissen. Nach Lorenzen sind beide Aussagen notwendiges Wissen. (WesselVs).
Modality/WesselVsCarnap: zu enge Auffassung.
Modality/WesselVsLorenzen: zu weite Auffassung. Dass alles Wissen notwendig sein soll, ist eine "fatalistische Konsequenz".
I 347
Modality/Wessel: ist keine Art von Wahrheitswert, wie oft fälschlich angenommen wird! Carnap: identifiziert Wahrheit und logische Notwendigkeit,
Lukasiewicz: hat einen dritten Wahrheitwert "möglich"
Lorenzen: benutzt "möglich" und "möglicherweise wahr" synonym. WesselVsLorenzen.

We I
H. Wessel
Logik Berlin 1999
Various Authors Dawkins Vs Various Authors
 
Books on Amazon
Aggression/Lorenz: (The so-called evil): Thesis: Aggression is a species-preserving function. Thus only the most suitable individuals propagate
DawkinsVsLorenz: Sample example for a circular conclusion. Circular. It is also contrary to Darwinism, which he does not seem to have noticed.
Animal/Lorenz: (The so-called evil) Thesis: stresses the moderate and fair character of the battles between animals. They practically fight according to rules and prefer the bluff to the deadly blow. Submission gestures are recognized by the victor. Animals fight with a "gloved fist."
DawkinsVsLorenz: this interpretation can be disputed, and man is not the only creature that kills his own fellow-human beings.
 In fact, unreserved fighting rage also entails costs
 DawkinsVsLorenz: the "gloved fist" turns out to be an ESS. The "open-minded redeemer". VIII 135
DawkinsVsAxelrod: the distinction between "simple" and "repeated prisoner dilemma" is too simple.VIII 358
SterelnyVsDawkins: assumes that a similarity of 5 % is better than one of 4 %! Is the selection really so fine-grained? Dennett I 347

Da I
R. Dawkins
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996

Da II
M. St. Dawkins
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993