1.1 17 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Dennett I 262<br /> The "Rule of the Local" is a basic principle of Darwinism. It corresponds to the principle that there is no Creator, no intelligent foresight. 1 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism McGinn 2 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Popper Mayr I 87 <br /> Darwinism/PopperVsDarwinism: (Popper 1974): "no verifiable theory, but a metaphysical research program ...." this criticism was later revoked by Popper. ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Darwinism">Darwinism</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>. 3 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Putnam 4 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Rorty 5 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Dawkins I 40<br /> Darwinism/Dawkins: In reality the "survival of the best-adapted" is a special case of the law of the continuity of the stable.<br /> I 373<br /> Gene/Darwinism/Dawkins: Darwinism speaks about the survival of individuals as a whole. Here, the paradox disappears that a gene might act against an individual. What is good for survival is good for all genes. 6 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Eigen I 188<br /> Darwin/Life/Eigen: Darwin's teaching should not be called Darwinism, it can be traced back to fundamental principles! Where the boundary conditions are fulfilled, it is a law. <br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Theories">Theory</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Laws">Laws</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Principles">Principles</a>. 7 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Gould I 70<br /> Darwin/Gould: Darwin's theory of selection represents a creative transfer of Adam Smiths' fundamental thesis of a rational economy to biology: equilibrium and order are not created by a higher, external (divine) power or by the existence of laws that directly affect the whole, but by the struggle between individuals for their own advantage. (modern variant: to transfer their genes to future generations through a particular success in reproduction).<br /> - - - <br /> II 9<br /> Darwinism/adaptation/Gould: Darwin's disciples later designed a version of his theory that was much narrower than Darwin himself would ever have allowed: this "adaptionist program" referred evolution to every single part of the body, ignoring the fact that organisms are integrated entities whose development potential is limited by inheritance (GouldVs.)<br /> II 11<br /> This exaggerated strict Darwinism emphasizes the numerous, small random variations and implies that macroevolution is a summation of the countless small steps. <br /> This "extrapolationist" theory denied macroevolution every independence.<br /> It would thus also deny the other levels, both below (e. g. genes) and above (species) any direct causal significance.<br /> II 171<br /> Definition Strict Darwinism/Gould: thesis: all characteristics are adaptations, and evolution as a whole is a struggle for survival at the lowest level between all individuals.<br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>. 8 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Kauffman 9 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Mayr I 135<br /> Darwin/Science Theory/Mayr: we speak of Darwin's first and second revolution.<br /> 1) Acknowledgement of evolution through common descent.<br /> a) Replace supernatural by natural explanation,<br /> b) Replace the linear model with a complex one.<br /> <br /> 2) Natural selection: refutation of the theory of acquired traits, refutation of mixed inheritance, discovery of the source of genetic diversity (mutation, genetic recombination, diploidy).<br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Explanation">Explanation</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Causal+Explanation">Causal explanation</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Selection">Selection</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Genes">Genes</a>. 10 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Nietzsche Pfotenhauer I 5<br /> Darwinism/Evolution/Nietzsche/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Pfotenhauer: Darwin's theory of evolution, which makes selection into a principle according to the measure (...) of selection performances to external conditions, is not liked by Nietzsche; he even hates it: "[...]this is the moral.... the middle ones are worth more than the exceptions"..."I am appalled by the formulation [of this] moral." Added Fragments, Spring 1888, KGW VIII, p. 95ff).<br /> --- <br /> Danto III 197<br /> Darwinism/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Nietzsche/DantoVsNietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche falls too often into the stupidest misconceptions of Darwinism by equating survival with excellence. He overlooks what Th. H. Huxley has already noticed:<br /> Evolution/Darwinism/Huxley, T. H.: the slightest change in the chemical composition of our atmosphere is enough to ensure that perhaps only a few lichens survive and thus become the masters of the world. <br /> Danto III 268<br /> Darwinism/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche was convinced VsDarwin that the disabled survive and the abled ones perish. <br /> Danto: apart from this tenacious belief, which is as easily attacked by Huxley's famous refutation as its flip side (See <a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-details.php?id=1026565&a=$a&first_name=Thomas%20Henry&author=Huxley&concept=Darwinism">Darwinism/Huxley, Th. H.), it is difficult to see why Nietzsche wanted people to see him as an anti-Darwinist.
Danto III 269
Survival/Nietzsche: According to Nietzsche, whether you preserve yourself or not has nothing to do with the blind exercise of the will to power, which characterizes every thing at every moment. Something survives, insofar as it emerges victoriously from the struggle of the will;
info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Singer I 61<br /> Darwinism/Animals/P. Singer: it is wrong to trouble Darwinism to justify human consumption of animals. First, the human being does not need meat to survive. Secondly, not all that is laid out in nature is an obligation: for example, a woman can give birth to a child every year, but this does not mean that it is wrong not to keep this rhythm.<br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Morals">Morality</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Ethics">Ethics</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Duty">Duties</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list-economics-politics.php?concept=Rights">Rights</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Animals">Animals</a>, cf. ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Animal+Language">Animal language</a>, cf. ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Abortion">Abortion</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Actions">Actions</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Decisions">Decisions</a>. 12 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Strauss Pfotenhauer IV 42<br /> Darwinism/Strauss, Friedrich David: (D. Fr. Strauss 1904<SUP>(1)</SUP>) thesis: following Darwin's example, it can be shown that all events have always been a higher development, that even without a rational minded creator the world follows a continuously executed overall plan. <br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Planning">Planning</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Levels+%28Order%29">Levels/order</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Description+Levels">Description levels</a>.<br /> For in blind natural phenomena and the worst of coincidences, only the more viable will prevail in the end, which for Strauss also means morally better things.<br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Morals">Morals</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/search.php?x=6&y=11&volltext=Survival">Survival.
Pfotenhauer IV 43
NietzscheVsStrauss: In contrast, Nietzsche reminds us of "the nameless sufferings of humanity", which inadvertently scorn such "truly nefarious ways of thinking", (F: Nietzsche(2)) this "shameless philistine optimism" (ibid. p. 187).

1. D. Fr. Strauss, Der alte und neue Glaube, 1872, 2nd edition Leipzig, 1904, in particular p. 60ff.
2. F: Nietzsche, David Strauss der Bekenner und Schriftsteller, 6; Nietzsche KGW III, 1, p. 188.
info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Huxley 14 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Koestler 15 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Vavilov 16 info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1 XML Darwinism Kropotkin Brocker I I26<br /> Darwinism/Kropotkin: Kropotkin saw himself as a Darwinist, but rejected the evolution theorist from his students. According to Kropotkin, Darwin was "quite right when he saw in the social characteristics of man the main factor for his further development, and Darwin's vulgarizing successors are completely wrong when they claim the opposite".<SUP>(1)</SUP><br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Evolution">Evolution</a>.<br /> VsKropotkin/VsSocial Darwinism: 1. Both are guilty of naturalistic failure: to derive a "shall" from being. Darwin himself, on the other hand, only tried to provide a description and explanation for the emergence and development of life in nature, and not to derive instructions for action from it. <br /> ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Social+Darwinism">Social Darwinism</a>.<br /> CantzenVsKropotkin: 2. Both Kropotkin and the social Darwinism he criticized appear with the claim of a natural science and try to present mutual help as a law of nature. Kropotkin does not reflect on the relationship between the natural environment and the social environment. However, this is a historical relationship and not a law of nature.<SUP>(2)</SUP><br /> Cf. ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Altruism">Altruism</a>, ><a href="https://philosophy-science-humanities-controversies.com/listview-list.php?concept=Laws">Laws</a>.<br /> <br /> 1. Pjotr Alexejewitsch Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, London 1902. Dt.: Peter Kropotkin, Gegenseitige Hilfe in der Tier- und Menschenwelt. Mit einem Nachwort neu herausgegeben von Henning Ritter, Frankfurt/M./Berlin/Wien 1975, S. 113.f. <br /> 2. Rolf Cantzen, Weniger Staat – mehr Gesellschaft. Freiheit – Ökologie – Anarchismus, Frankfurt/M. 1987 , S. 23. 17