Economics Dictionary of Arguments

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Planning: Planning is the process of setting goals and developing a course of action to achieve those goals. It involves identifying the resources needed, developing a timeline, and assigning tasks. See also Strategies, Thinking, Imagination.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Jonathan Zittrain on Planning - Dictionary of Arguments

I 127
Planning/politics/order/Zittrain: The Dutch city of Drachten has undertaken an unusual experiment in traffic management. The roads serving forty-five thousand people are “verkeersbordvrij”: free of nearly all road signs. Drachten is one of several European test sites for a traffic planning approach called “unsafe is safe.” (1) The city has removed its traffic signs, parking meters, and even parking spaces. The only rules are that drivers should yield to those on their right at an intersection, and that parked cars blocking others will be towed. The result so far is counterintuitive: a dramatic improvement in vehicular safety. Without signs to obey mechanically (or, as studies have shown, disobey seventy percent of the time (2), people are forced to drive more mindfully—operating their cars with more care and attention to the surrounding circumstances. They communicate more with pedestrians, bicyclists, and other drivers using hand signals and eye contact. They see other drivers rather than other cars.

1. See Matthias Schulz, Controlled Chaos: European Cities Do Away with Traffic Signs, SPIEGEL ONLINE INT’L, NOV. 16, 2006, 0,1518,448747,00.html.

2. In the United States, studies by the Federal Highway Traffic Safety Administration (FTSA) have shown that motorists disobey speed limits on non-interstates 70 percent of the time. Interview with Earl Hardy, Speeding Expert, Nat’l Highway Traffic Safety Admin., and Elizabeth Alicandri, Dir. of Office of Safety Programs, Fed. Highway Admin., (Mar. 30, 2006),

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Zittrain I
Jonathan Zittrain
The Future of the Internet--And How to Stop It New Haven 2009

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