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State: In political philosophy, the state (polity) is a centralized political organization with authority over a defined territory and population. It enforces laws, maintains order, and exercises governance through various institutions. See also Society, Nations, Governance, Institutions, Power, Law, Laws, Rights, Jurisdiction, Legislation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Ch.-L. de Secondat Montesquieu on State (Polity) - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 262
State/Montesquieu/Höffe: separation of powers: [Montesquieu expands] Locke's division of powers around the judiciary, the administration of justice. Montesquieu does not envisage any separate power for foreign policy, thus setting Locke's federalism aside and influencing modern constitutions with this doctrine of three public powers - legislation, executive power and jurisdiction.
, >Parliamentary system, >Legislature, >Government, >Judiciary.
Montesquieu himself represents neither a strict division of powers nor their exclusive assignment to one state organ each: legislation to parliament, the executive to the government, and jurisdiction to the courts.
In addition to the three powers, he emphasizes three social forces (the people, hereditary nobility and hereditary king) and seven state organs (the electorate, the People's Chamber/lower house, People's Court, the aristocratic chamber/upper house, aristocratic court, king and minister).
Subsequently, he advocated the mixed constitution preferred in antiquity and the Middle Ages, now a subtle network of divisions and mixtures of powers, of veto and control rights, of countervailing powers and balances(1).

1. Montesquieu, On the spirit of the laws that shape political freedom and their relation to the Constitution (De l'Esprit des lois, 1748).

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Monte I
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu
De l’esprit des lois, Paris 1748
German Edition:
Vom Geist der Gesetze Stuttgart 2011

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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