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Values: Values are fundamental beliefs that guide behavior, representing principles individuals hold dear, influencing choices and attitudes towards oneself, others, and the world. See also Beliefs, Behavior, Individuals, Community, Norms, Principles, Decisions, Decision-making processes, Decision theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Liberalism on Values - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 108
Values/liberalism/Gaus: The idea that, somehow, liberalism could be intimately associated with scepticism about values, or some form of subjectivism, is controversial today: many important liberals such as Sher (1997)(1) dispute it.
Antiliberalism: Moreover, opponents of liberalism such as Alasdair MacIntyre (1981)(2) have sought to make just this link, making contemporary defenders of liberalism suspicious about accepting some sort of tie.
>A. MacIntyre, >Communitarianism.
Skepticism: Nevertheless, scepticism about the interpersonal status of values has long been a part of liberalism.The sceptical camp includes all those liberalisms premised on the supposition that the powers of human reason are insufficient to provide public, definitive answers to the enduring questions concerning what makes life worth living, and to what ends we should devote ourselves. This line of liberal thinking can trace itself back to Hobbes and Locke(3).
>Th. Hobbes, >J. Locke.

1. Sher, George (1997) Beyond Neutrality: Perfectionism and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. MacIntyre, Alasdair (1981) After Virtue. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
3. Locke, John (1975) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. Peter H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon. p. 299

Gaus, Gerald F. 2004. „The Diversity of Comprehensive Liberalisms.“ In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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