# Economics Dictionary of Arguments

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Covariance: Covariance in physics is a measure of the statistical relationship between two or more physical quantities. It can be used to describe how two quantities are related to each other in space, time, or both. For example, the covariance of the position and momentum of a particle can be used to describe how the particle's momentum changes as its position changes. See also Measurements, Observation.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Robert Nozick on Covariance - Dictionary of Arguments

II 54
Knowledge/Belief/Covariance/Nozick: the more a belief (co-)varies with the truth of what is believed, the better it is as knowledge.
>Belief
, >Truth.
Def Knowledge/Nozick: knowledge is what we have when our belief varies subjunctively with the truth - but if there were beings with better knowledge (possible world), our attitude would not be in the best relation to what is believed, and would no longer be knowledge. ((s) Again this is depending on other things, extrinsic property).
>Extrinsic, >Knowledge, >Possible worlds.
II 175
Counterfactual condtional: shows covariance.
II 175ff
Covariance/Conditional/Counterfactual Conditional/Nozick: Conditional: provides only half of the covariance: if p were false, the person would not believe it - the conditional only varies with those cases where the antecedent is false.
Problem: still missing:

when p > S believes that p.

II 220ff
Knowledge/Connection/Covariance/Nozick: knowledge requires covariance with the facts; if they were different, I would believe other things - that is the connection (track).
Covariance/(s): if yes, then yes, if no, then no.
II 224f
Method/Knowledge/Covariance/Nozick: I do not live in a world in which pain behavior e is given and must be kept constant! - Therefore, I can know h on the basis of e, which is variable!
>Evidence, >Hypotheses.
And because it does not vary, it shows me that h (he is in pain) is true.
>Pain.
VsSkepticism: in reality, it is not about the fact that h is not known, but non-(e and non-h).
II 227
Openness of knowledge: means that knowledge varies with the facts, because it is in connection with them.
>Covariance.
II 283
Knowledge/Covariance/Nozick: there are different degrees of covariance of knowledge with the facts and degrees of sensitivity with respect to truth value.
>Truth value.
For evolution, it is not necessary that beings perceive all changes - let alone respond to them - our ability to develop beliefs is finer than the ability for perception - we can doubt perceptions.
>Perception, >Belief, >World/thinking, >Sensory impressions,
>Evolution.
II 297
Constancy/Covariance/Nozick: E.g. suppose we want to recognize the content of preferences - Then preferences must at least sometimes be kept constant from situation to situation - form of thought,
((s) That is so, because otherwise you cannot be sure whether the preference belongs to the situation or the person.)
>Preferences.
Nozick: both people and situations must be able to share preferences - There must be independence. - Otherwise there is no trinity.
>Situations, >Persons, >Independence.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

No I
R. Nozick
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981

No II
R., Nozick
The Nature of Rationality 1994

> Counter arguments against Nozick
> Counter arguments in relation to Covariance