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Electoral fraud: Electoral fraud involves illegal interference in an election process to manipulate results, undermine fairness, or deceive voters. It includes actions like ballot tampering, voter suppression, vote buying, or falsifying vote counts. See also Political elections, Election systems.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Daniel Ziblatt on Electoral Fraud - Dictionary of Arguments

Levitsky I 72
Electoral Fraud/Levitsky/Ziblatt: Electoral fraud has happened
Levitsky I 73
very rarely in the United States(1), and since elections are organized by state and local authorities, nationwide electoral fraud is virtually impossible. Nevertheless, during the 2016 campaign, Trump continued to claim that millions of illegal immigrants and deceased people on voter rolls would be counted as votes for Hillary Clinton(2).
Levitsky I 213
The reason for enacting a Voter Identification Act was the false assertion that electoral fraud was widespread in the United States(3). According to all reliable investigations, the extent of election fraud in this country is low(4). Nevertheless, Republicans began to press for measures to address this non-existent problem. The first two states to pass a Voter Identification Act in 2005 were Georgia and Indiana. John Lewis, a member of the House of Representatives from Georgia and a civil rights campaigner, described his state's law as a "modern poll tax(5). An estimated 300,000 voters did not possess any of the now required proofs of identity, and African Americans were five times more likely to do so than whites(6). Indiana's Voter Identification Act, which Judge Terence Evans of the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals called a "reasonably well-disguised attempt" to "prevent the participation in the election of certain people who are believed to be inclined toward the Democrats,"(7) was brought before the Supreme Court, which approved it in 2008. After that, such laws were introduced in many places, between 2010 and 2012 in 37 states (8). By 2016, strict laws requiring photo identification had been passed in 15 states, but only ten of them were in effect in time for the election(9).
Levitsky I 215
An election observation project led by the media organization ProPublica found no evidence of electoral fraud,(10) and Philip Bump of the Washington Post found only four documented cases of electoral fraud in the 2016 election during his research(11).
>Political elections
, >Electoral rules, >Democracy, >Parliamentary system.

1. On electoral fraud in general see Richard L. Hasen, The Voting Wars. From Florida 2000 to the Next Election Meltdown, New Haven, Connecticut, 2012; Lorraine C. Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud, Ithaca, New York, 2010. On the fact that there was no electoral fraud in 2016, see Jessica Huseman/Scott Klein, »There’s No Evidence Our Election Was Rigged«, in: ProPublica, 28th November 2016.
2. Darren Samuelsohn, »A Guide to Donald Trump’s ›Rigged‹ Election«, in: Politico, 25th Oktober 2016.
3. Justin Levitt, »The Truth About Voter Fraud«, The New York University School of Law Brenner Center for Justice (2007),; siehe auch Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud; Hasen, The Voting Wars, p. 41–73; Sharad Goel/Marc Meredith/Michael Morse/David Rothschild/Houshmand Shirani-Mehr, »One Person, One Vote. Estimating the Prevalence of Double-Voting in U. S. Presidential Elections«, unveröffentlichtes Manuskript, Januar 2017.
4. See e.g. Levitt, »The Truth About Voter Fraud«; Minnite, The Myth of Voter Fraud.
5. Quoted in Berman, Give Us the Ballot, p. 223.
6. Ibid.
7. Quoted in ibid., p. 254.
8. Ibid., p. 260 f.
9. Highton, »Voter Identification Laws and Turnout in the United States«, p. 151–153.
10. Huseman/Klein, »There’s No Evidence Our Election Was Rigged«.
11.»There Have Been Just Four Documented Cases of Voter Fraud in the 2016 Election«, Election«, in: The Washington Post, 1st Dezember 2016.

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The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Ziblatt, Daniel

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