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Liberalism: Liberalism in political philosophy is a set of beliefs that emphasize individual liberty, equality, and the rule of law. Liberals believe that individuals should be free to live their lives as they see fit. See also Libertarianism, Communitarianim, Individualism, Freedom, Society, Democracy.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Michael Freeden on Liberalism - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 9
Liberalism/Freeden: the much-trumpeted neutrality of liberalism among different conceptions of the good is both chimerical and palpably undesirable in a political society where practices have to be put into effect, unless – as some political philosophers do – one believes in the possibility as well as the desirability of a fundamental social consensus on values. >Ideology/Freeden
; ((s) especially on the implications of ideologies on language). >Political Philosophy/Freeden.
Gaus I 10
As a rule, though, the core of twentieth-century liberalism constituted an appeal for the release of a flow of free, vital and spontaneous activity emanating from individuals, one that would spread across the globe not through an internal rational logic but through a successful appeal to the intellects and emotions of the oppressed and underprivileged (Hobhouse, 1911(1); Freeden, 2001b: 21–2)(2). >Communitarianism/Freeden.

1. Hobhouse, L. T. 1911. Liberalism. London: Williams and Norgate.
2.. Freeden, M. 2001b. ‘Twentieth-century liberal thought: development or transformation?’ In M. Evans, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Contemporary Liberalism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 21-2

Freeden, M. 2004. „Ideology, Political Theory and Political Philosophy“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Freeden, Michael
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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