|Immanuel Kant: Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) was a German philosopher. Kant is a representative of the German Idealism. His major works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Judgment (1790). See also G.W.F. Hegel, Idealism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Gerald F. Gaus on Kant - Dictionary of Arguments
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Kant/contractualism/Gaus: Kantian contractualism must build into the account some constraint that limits consideration to only justifications that all reasonable people would accept, or that none would reject.
Rawls: One way to do this is, à la Rawls, to constrain the choice situation in such a way that the rational parties are forced to advance only reasonable considerations. The nature of Rawls’s argument behind the veil of ignorance (which excludes specific knowledge about a contractor’s post-contract life and personality) is such that given the constraints on choice, the most rational choice for a contractor will model a reasonable choice for you and me.
ScanlonVsRawls: Instead, though, of building into the framework of the choice situation our understanding of the demands of reasonableness, we might, as Scanlon suggests, appeal directly to our intuitions about reasonableness in the contractarian analysis (1998(1): ch. 5).
Gaus: A fruitful project for Kantian liberalism is to integrate the more direct version described above with the contractual argument (Reiman, 1990(2); Gaus, 1990(3): Part II). >Person/Reiman.
Some basic moral principles may be directly derived from our conceptions of ourselves as moral persons (i.e. a basic right to noninterference), while other moral principles (say, concerning specific schemes of property rights and distributive justice) may be justified via a contractual argument.
1. Scanlon, Thomas (1998) What We Owe Each Other. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
2. Reiman, Jeffrey (1990) Justice and Modern Moral Philosophy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
3. Gaus, Gerald F. (1990) Value and Justification: The Foundations of Liberal Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gaus, Gerald F. 2004. „The Diversity of Comprehensive Liberalisms.“ In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Gerald F. Gaus
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004