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Deliberative democracy: Deliberative democracy is a form of democracy that emphasizes the importance of public deliberation in decision-making. It is based on the idea that citizens should have the opportunity to discuss and debate issues before decisions are made, and that these discussions should be informed by reason and evidence.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Jürgen Habermas on Deliberative Democracy - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 145
Deliberative Democracy/Habermas/Dryzek: The mam shortcoming of liberal constitutionalist
deliberative democracy is that it says little about
Gaus I 146
extra-constitutional agents of distortion, such as the dominant position of business in liberal states, oppressive discourses (in Foucault's sense), and imperatives dictated to states by either security concerns or the transnational political economy and its institutions.
Hbermas/Dryzek: In this light, it is perhaps surprising that Habermas, who once highlighted such forces, has now turned his back upon them and taken his critical theory of deliberation quite close to liberalism. In Between Facts and Norms (1996)(1) he advances a 'two-track' model of deliberative democracy. One track is rooted in the public sphere, the other in the legislature. Influence formulated through deliberation in the informal public sphere is converted to communicative power - especially via elections - and thence to administrative power through legislation, whose precepts are followed to the letter by government bureaucracies.
Dryzek: Constitutions are necessary to detail these elements and, in particular, to specify the rights necessary to enable the public sphere to flourish.
Habermas: The public sphere itself is seen in less insurgent terms than was the case for an earlier Habermas (for example, 1989)(2), and there is no recognition of any need to democratize the econ-
omy, the administrative state, or the legal system, all of which receive easy legitimacy.
>Public sphere
, >Electoral systems.

1. Habermas, Jürgen (1996) Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
2. Habermas, Jürgen (1989) Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bowgeois Society. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Dryzek, John S. 2004. „Democratic Political Theory“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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