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Citizenship: Citizenship is the legal status of an individual as a recognized member of a particular nation or country. It confers certain rights and obligations, such as the right to vote, hold public office, and access public services, while also imposing responsibilities such as paying taxes and obeying the law. See also State (Polity), Citizens, Bourgois/Citoyen, Law, Rights, Political elections, Electoral systems, Taxation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Thomas H. Marshall on Citizenship - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 218
Citizenship/welfare state/T.H. Marshall/Moon: T. H. Marshall (1977)(1) offers a classical account of the welfare state as the necessary result of the universal extension of citizenship. He traces the emergence of universal citizenship by observing three successive phases, the first involving the general extension of civil rights, the second the universalization of the suffrage, and the third the growth of the welfare state and the creation of the 'social rights of citizenship'.*
>Welfare state
, >Civil rights, >Citizens, >Bourgeois/Citizen.
Gaus I 219
David Harris: In some solidaristic accounts, the emphasis on work invokes an older language of duties. In Harris's account, for example, the duties correlative to our welfare rights are
'strict obligations' and may be enforced by 'coercion' (1987(2): 161).
Marshall: In this, [Harris] echoes Marshall, who looked beyond the social rights of citizenship to consider the duties of the enriched and inclusive model of citizenship he advocated, including 'the
duty to work', which he thought was of 'paramount importance'.

* Like so much of social science, Marshall's account is blind to issues of gender, as he depicts these phases as a historical succession, the completion or virtual completion of one laying the basis for the realization of the next. His stages describe the gradual extension of the rights associated with citizenship for men, but they ignore the experience of women (and, I might add, other non-class-based exclusions), who often were able to claim various welfare rights (e.g. widows' pensions) before they were entitled to political or even full civil rights.

1. Marshall, T. H. (1977 119501) 'Citizenship and social class'. In his Class, Citizenship, and Social Development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2. Harris, David (1987) Justifying State Welfare. Oxford: Blackwell.

Moon, J. Donald 2004. „The Political Theory of the Welfare State“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Marshall, Thomas H.
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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