|Inequalities: To detect inequalities, one needs to identify the relevant factors, collect data, analyze the data, and interpret the results. See also Indistinguishability, Differences, Equality, Similarity, Identity, Interpretation, Description dependence, Comparisons, Comparability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Resource-based View (RBV) on Inequalities - Dictionary of Arguments
Gaus I 226
Inequalities/Resource-based view (RBV)/Lamont: An important question for any theory of distributive justice is how to measure or compare individuals' positions or shares of goods. A key insight of the resource theorist is that individuals' overall positions relative to others depend not only on their shares of social or economic goods, but on their natural endowments. One with severe disabilities, for example, may need more money or more educational opportunity to reach the same level of well-being as others. Thus, even if egalitarian in its motivation, a theory which fails to take into account people' s natural endowments in the measurement of distributive shares will not, according to the resource theorist, achieve a genuinely egalitarian result. The key question for resource theorists, and what determines differences among them, is which endowments are natural, and which are the result of one's own choices. A paraplegic injured in an unavoidable accident is disadvantaged relative to others even with the same social and economic
Gaus I 227
goods, so a resource theorist would favour their having a larger share. However, a lack of skill
resulting from the preference to play rather than work does not entitle one to any compensation in economic resources. The resource theorist's aim is to include natural endowments as resources, and distribute the social and economic goods in such a way as to ensure that people are compensated only for bad luck, not for the consequences of their own choices.
The most prominent resource-based theory, developed by Ronald Dworkin (2000)(1), proposes
that people begin with equal resources but end up with unequal economic benefits as a result of
exercising their capacity to choose (...). >Inequalities/Dworkin, >Desert/Political philosophy, >Distributive Justice/Libertarianism.
1. Dworkin, Ronald (2000) Soveæign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lamont, Julian, „Distributive Justice“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
|Resource-based View (RBV)
Gerald F. Gaus
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004