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Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering is the modification of an organism's genetic material using biotechnology tools. It involves altering DNA sequences to introduce new traits or functionalities. Techniques like CRISPR allow precise editing, impacting agriculture, medicine, and research by creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or addressing genetic disorders through gene therapy. See also Genes, Technology, Life.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Allen Buchanan on Genetic Engineering - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 227
Equality/Genetic engineering/Allen Buchanan/resorce-based view (RBV)/Lamont: As Allen Buchanan argues, (...) the theoretical aims of the resource theorist movement may become more practically relevant as scientific knowledge and technological advancement in the area of genetics grow. The human genome project is likely to affect our ideals regarding distributive justice in a number of fundamental ways.
First, as we gain more knowledge of people's genetic probabilities, we are more likely to pass judgement about what is and what is not a matter of choice or luck. We may also expect others to make responsible choices in light of this information.
Second, much of what is now seen as one's 'natural' endowments may come to be seen as subject to human intervention and so part of the social institutions to which principles of justice apply. If our likelihood of facing certain illnesses or disabilities depends not entirely on luck or genetic makeup, but also on the way in which access to and use of appropriate technologies is regulated, and whether we choose to make use of these, then this changes the scope of what is natural and what is social.
Thus, advances in genetic technology have the potential to change where the line is drawn between what is a matter of luck, what is a matter of choice, and what is a matter of social responsibility, so that the previous array of theoretical positions may have very different implications in the social context of the coming century (Buchanan et al., 2001(1)). Cf. >Desert/Political philosophy
, >Distributive Justice/Libertarianism.

1. Buchanan, A. , D. Brock, N. Daniels, and D. Wikler, eds (2001) From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lamont, Julian, „Distributive Justice“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

EconBuchan I
James M. Buchanan
Politics as Public Choice Carmel, IN 2000

Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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