|Diversity: Diversity is the presence of differences within a group of people. It can be based on a variety of factors, such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, age, socioeconomic status, and disability.
Diversity is important because it allows us to learn from and appreciate different perspectives and experiences. See also Community, Society._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Multiculturalism on Diversity (Politics) - Dictionary of Arguments
Gaus I 251
Diversity/Multiculturalism/Kukathas: a) For some, multiculturalism requires moderate changes to social and political institutions to enable cultural minorities to preserve their languages and their distinctive customs or practices.
b) For others, however, multiculturalism requires much greater social transformation to turn modern society into one in which racism has been eliminated and 'difference' is nurtured rather than repudiated, or simply tolerated.
Unity/problems: But if multiculturalism is a way of embracing diversity, this still leaves open the question of how diversity is to be embraced. If a multicultural society is one in which different religions, cultures, languages, and peoples can coexist without some being subordinated to others, or to a single, dominant group, how can this be achieved, and what principles would describe such a society? This issue arises because even if there is diversity, there must surely be some kind of unity for a society to exist. The real question (...) is what does multiculturalism mean in
practice? This question, however, was not addressed systematically until the 1990s when political theorists began to consider what might be the principled basis of a multicultural society. >Multiculturalism/Kymlicka, >Minority rights/Kymlicka, >Minority/Kymlicka, >Culture/Kymlicka.
Gaus I 255
Diversity/Charles Taylor: Out of such desires, according to Taylor, grew a philosophical alternative to liberalism: the politics of difference. This view is sceptical about the pretensions of liberalism to offer neutral or difference-blind principles that are more than simply reflections of the standards of the dominant culture. >Multiculturalism/Taylor.
Gaus I 256
A number of other theorists have developed arguments about how cultural diversity might be
accommodated by giving greater recognition to 'difference' rather than extending the scope or
range of liberal rights (Baumeister, 2000)(1). James Tully's Strange Multiplicity (1995)(2), for example, offers a reconstruction of modern constitutionalism that is able to accommodate a greater variety of cultural traditions, and adapt elements from some of them to enhance the quality of liberal constitutional arrangements. In many of these cases, defenders of the politics of difference present an approach to cultural diversity which not only criticizes liberal individualism but also advocates a greater emphasis on the extension of democratic processes to give greater scope to the participation of cultural minori- ties in the shaping and governing of the polity (see Young, 1990(3); 2000(4); Phillips, 1995(5); Devaux, 2000(6); Williams, 1998(7); Tully, 2003(8)).
1. Baumeister, Andrea T. (2000) Liberalism and the 'Politics of Difference Edinburgh: Edinburgh
2. Tully, James (1995) Strange Multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Young, Iris Marion (1990) Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
4.Young, Iris Marion (2000) Democracy and Inclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
5. Phillips, Anne (1995) The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Clarendon.
6. Devaux, Monique (2000) Cultural Pluralism and Dilemmas of Justice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
7. Williams, Melissa (1998) Voice, Trust, and Memory: Marginalized Groups and the Failings of Liberal Representation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
8. Tully, James (2003) 'Ethical pluralism and classical liberalism'. In Richard Madsen and Tracy B. Strong, eds, The Many and the One: Religious and Secular Perspectives on Ethical Pluralism in the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 78—85.
Kukathas, Chandran 2004. „Nationalism and Multiculturalism“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Gerald F. Gaus
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004