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Gender roles: Gender roles are the social expectations for how people should behave and express themselves based on their gender. They are influenced by biological factors, such as sex, as well as social and cultural factors. See also Gender.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Terrell Carver on Gender Roles - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 280
Gender roles/Terrell Carver/Mottier: As Terrell Carver (1996)(1) points out, [the] two spheres [of privacy and politics] are not simply pre-given, and the task of political theory is not just to theorize their relations. These are sociopolitical constructs, the frontiers of which are regulated by the state. Joining others such as Robert Connell (1990)(2), Judith Squires (1994b)(3), or Chantal Mouffe (1992)(4), Carver draws the conclusion that it is precisely the process of construction of these spheres and their respective frontiers that needs examining since it is there that power issues operate.
Gender roles: Carver (1996)(1) further emphasizes that the traditional structuration of the two spheres also has consequences for men - a point which feminist theorists tend to neglect. As he puts it somewhat provocatively, 'gender is not a synonym for women'.
Gaus I 281
Feminists have routinely criticized traditional political theory for marginalizing themes conventionally associated with femininity - such as sexuality, the care of children, or reproduction - to the private sphere. As Carver points out, issues such as male sexualities, the reproductive functions of men, or the role of men in the education and care-giving of children have also been excluded both from political theory and from political debate.
>Ch. Mouffe
, >V. Mottier, >T. Carver, >Feminism, >Gender.

1. Carver, Terrell (1996) Gender Is Not a Synonym for Women. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
2. Connell, Robert (1990) 'The state, gender and sexual politics'. Theory and Society, 19: 507-44.
3. Squires, Judith (1994b) 'Private lives, secluded places: privacy as political possibility'. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 12.
4. Mouffe, Chantal (1992) 'Feminism, citizenship and radical democratic politics'. In Judith Butler and Joan Scott, eds, Feminists Theorise the Political. New York: Routledge, 22-40.

Véronique Mottier 2004. „Feminism and Gender Theory: The Return of the State“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Carver, Terrell
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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