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History: History is the study of the past, especially the people, events, and trends that have shaped our world. This is about the part of the past that was determined and experienced by consciousness. See also Historiography, Culture.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Augustine on History - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 109
History/Salvation History/Augustinus/Höffe: The idea of a unified history, first of all towards Christ and finally towards the Last Judgement, a world history as salvation history, has numerous roots. Their creative connection, an outstanding achievement of synthesis, now finds its first, long-lasting climax in Augustine.
Old Testament roots: (...) the idea of a unified history of God acting on and with His chosen people. In addition, there is the tradition of the Apocalypse, begun in the Old Testament and continued in the New Testament, and the experience of the absence of the return of Christ. There are also New Platonic thoughts.
Eras/world ages: Finally, the apostle Paul divides world history into three ages, the age before the law, the age under the law and finally the age under divine grace.
Höffe I 110
Believers/unbelievers: According to the synthesis developed in the God state, the history is a veritable drama, driven by the tension between the worldly kingdom of the unbelievers and the divine kingdom of the believers.
Fate: The history developing from this struggle is neither dominated by a fate (fatum) nor a (new)platonic world soul.
Providence: Decisive are the providence of God and, within (narrow) limits, the free will of man(1), whose abuse admittedly leads to "a chain of misery and suffering"(2).
Höffe I 117
Augustine's theory of history leads the influential historian and also politically active bishop Otto von Freising (1112-1158) to interpret world history as a struggle between the two kingdoms, the world and God's kingdom.
Progress/Kant/Hegel: A formal core of Augustine's historical thinking, the teleological character, the idea of progress, which tends towards a positive goal, lives on in many places, however, partly as with Kant and Hegel as progress of law and freedom, partly as in an Enlightenment still practiced today as progress of science, medicine and technology.

1. Augustine, The State of God, De civitate dei V, 8 ff.
2. Ibid., XIII, 14

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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