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Freedom: Freedom is the ability to live one's life without constraints, according to one's own values and beliefs. See also Liberty, Community, State, Governance, Society, Individuals, Democracy.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Immanuel Kant on Freedom - Dictionary of Arguments

Adorno XIII 196
Freedom/Kant/Adorno: in Kant, the domination of causality is restricted to the realm of nature, but the realm of the mind should be, as far as it is his native kingdom, as far as human beings act and realize their ideas in their actions, the realm of freedom. The innermost principle of freedom is the same reason, on the basis of which causality as a category is itself constituted. This is the unity moment within Kant's dualism.
, >Causality/Kant, >Morals/Kant.
Adorno XIII 252
Freedom/Kant/Adorno: if in the Kantian philosophy of history the idea of freedom can only be mediated by the antagonism of the interests and the empirical people are called radical evil, this doctrine is directly committed to Hobbes, although Kant certainly did not really want to have something in common with Hobbes.
HegelVsHobbes: the Hegelian cunning of reason, as the doctrine that the rational establishment of society asserts itself through the interests of humans, but, as it were, overgrew them, is the strictest consequence from it.

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Höffe I 311
Freedom/Kant/Höffe: Kant demands freedom of speech and freedom of the arts and sciences.
However, he rejects the privilege of the nobility, serfdom (hereditary submission, slavery) and a despotic government as well as the
Höffe I 312
colonialism and a state decreed unchanging church faith.
Justification: The basis for this is the definition of the legal state, with which Kant probably for the first time brings the essence of the modern constitutional state to the concept: "The legal state is that relationship of humans among themselves, which contains the conditions under which alone everyone can participate in its law(1).

1. I. Kant, Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre § 41

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
I. Kant
I Günter Schulte Kant Einführung (Campus) Frankfurt 1994
Externe Quellen. ZEIT-Artikel 11/02 (Ludger Heidbrink über Rawls)
Volker Gerhard "Die Frucht der Freiheit" Plädoyer für die Stammzellforschung ZEIT 27.11.03
Th. W. Adorno
Max Horkheimer
Dialektik der Aufklärung Frankfurt 1978

Theodor W. Adorno
Negative Dialektik Frankfurt/M. 2000

Theodor W. Adorno
Ästhetische Theorie Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Minima Moralia Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophie der neuen Musik Frankfurt/M. 1995

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften, Band 5: Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistheorie. Drei Studien zu Hegel Frankfurt/M. 1071

Theodor W. Adorno
Noten zur Literatur (I - IV) Frankfurt/M. 2002

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 2: Kierkegaard. Konstruktion des Ästhetischen Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 8: Soziologische Schriften I Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Über Walter Benjamin Frankfurt/M. 1990

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 1 Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 2 Frankfurt/M. 1974

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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