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Justice: Justice can be understood as the fair and impartial treatment of all people. It is often associated with the law. Some key elements are fairnes, equality, proportionality, accountability. See also Law, Rights, Equality, Impartiality.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Antiphon the Sophist on Justice - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 309
Justice/obedience/Antiphon/Keyt/Miller: [in Plato’s Republic] on Glaucon's view of justice as a necessary evil and a shackle of natural desires, no one is just willingly: people practise justice 'as something necessary, not as something good' (Rep. II.358c16-17).
Gyges‘ ring: this is the point of the story of Gyges' ring, the ring that makes its possessor 'equal to a god among men' (Rep. II.360c3) by giving him the power of invisibility. Glaucon claims that the possessor of such a ring would exploit its power to satisfy his natural desires unrestrained by justice.
Antiphon: Antiphon in On Truth makes a similar point: if justice consists of obeying the laws of one's polis, a person would best use justice to his own advantage if he considered the laws [nomoi] important when witnesses are present, but the consequences of nature [physis] important in the absence of witnesses' (DK 44 col. l; see also Caizz, 1999)(1).
>Gyges/Ancient philosophy
, >Polis, >Laws, >Nomos.

1. Caizz, Fernanda Decleva (1999) 'Protagoras and Antiphon: Sophistic debates on justice'. In A. A. Long, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keyt, David and Miller, Fred D. jr. 2004. „Ancient Greek Political Thought“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Antiphon the Sophist
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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