Bernard Williams on Speciecism - Dictionary of Arguments
Singer I 69
Speciesism/B. Williams/Peter Singer: (B. Williams, The Human Prejudice, place, year?): B. Williams has defended speciesism in such a way: all our values are necessarily "human values".
P. SingerVsWilliams, B.: but this does not exclude developing values that could be accepted by rational beings who can experience empathy with other beings.
More importantly: the fact that these values are human values does not exclude that we should value the suffering of other species less. That is what Williams admits. But what is the decisive point in asserting that our values are human values?
B. WilliamsVsVs: Let us imagine that our planet is colonized by well-meaning farsighted beings who conclude that it is necessary to eliminate us.
Then it would be right to be on our side against these alien beings. In the end, it is a question of "which side are you on?"
P. SingerVsWilliams, B.: We have heard this question before, in war, racial conflicts, ethnic or ideological conflicts and in the McCarthy era. We should not take Williams' tribalist approach.
Human/P. Singer: Whether a living being is a human being can undoubtedly be determined by examining the chromosomes. That is not a border that is shifting. However, there is another term "human" introduced by Joseph Fletcher. See Human/Fletcher._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy London 2011
Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology Oxford 2001
"Do We (Epistemologists) Need A Theory of Truth?", Philosophical Topics, 14 (1986) pp. 223-42
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015