Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Models, philosophy, logic: A model is obtained when a logical formula provides true statements by inserting objects instead of the free variables. One problem is the exclusion of unintended models. See also model theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Bruno Latour on Models - Dictionary of Arguments

Sokal I 116
Model/Bruno Latour/BricmontVsLatour/SokalVsLatour/Bricmont/Sokal: Latour distinguishes between two models in the interpretation of scientific results (B. Latour, Science in Action, Cambridge 1987, p. 97):
1st model/Latour: with the first model, nature alone is enough to resolve all the controversies, irrespective of the size of the scientists' resources. We need do nothing more than to understand the most superficial aspects of science.
2nd model/Latour: we have a lot of work to do on the second model, because we understand everything that exists in science and technology through an analysis of the allies and resources that resolve a controversy.
Sokal: how does Latour decide which model is the right one?
Sokal I 117
Latour: (p. 99): "When we examine controversies, we can be no less relativistic than the scientists and engineers we accompany. They do not use nature as an external referee, and we have no reason to believe we are smarter than they are."
SokalVsLatour: here and in the preceding quote, Latour does not distinguish between facts and knowledge of these facts. There are even more extreme examples of this: See also Evidence/Latour
, knowledge/Latour, validity/Latour.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Lat I
Bruno Latour
Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society Cambridge, MA 1988

Sokal I
Alan Sokal
Jean Bricmont
Fashionabel Nonsense. Postmodern Intellectuals Abuse of Science, New York 1998
German Edition:
Eleganter Unsinn. Wie die Denker der Postmoderne die Wissenschaften missbrauchen München 1999

Sokal II
Alan Sokal
Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals’ Abuse of Science New York 1999

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