Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Stimulus: is a change in the state of a variable which, by acting on a subject or ultimately a sense cell, can have or cannot have effect or a willingness to do so. Stimuli can occur both outside and inside a living system. While in an event that is without effect, one does not speak of a cause, one speaks very well of stimuli, which remain subliminally and thus trigger no reaction. The reason for this is that several levels are involved in the processing of stimuli and inhibitions may occur during processing.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Gordon W. Allport on Stimuli - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 95
Stimuli/behavior/Allport/Deary: Allport emphasized that it was the trait and not the stimulus that was the driving force behind behaviour that expresses personality. This idea was recast by Matthews, Deary and Whiteman (2003(1)) when they articulated the key assumptions of the ‘inner locus’ and ‘causal precedence’ of personality traits. Allport suggested the definitions ‘derived drives’ or ‘derived motives’ for traits and summed up that (Allport 1931(2), p. 369): Whatever they are called they may be regarded as playing a motivating role in each act, thus endowing the separate adjustments of the individual to specific stimuli with that adverbial quality that is the very essence of personality.
Adverbs/adjectives/description/theory/Deary: Today’s trait researchers are keener on adjectives than adverbs.

1.Matthews, G., Deary, I. J. and Whiteman, M. C. 2003. Personality traits, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press
2. Allport, G. W. 1931. What is a trait of personality?, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 25: 368–72

Ian J. Deary, “The trait approach to personality”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Allport, Gordon W.
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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