Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Temperament: Temperament in psychology refers to innate, enduring traits that influence an individual's emotional and behavioral tendencies. It encompasses mood, activity level, rhythmicity, tendency for approach or withdrawal, and adaptability, often observed from early childhood. See also Personality traits, Personality.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Jerome Kagan on Temperament - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 13
Temperament/Kagan: Currently popular evolutionary approaches describe a common ancestral basis of personality, but one that is adaptive by having individual differences in the population in the distribution of personality traits – empathy to some, dominance to others, and so on, with many of these traits distributed differently for males and females (Buss 1999(1); Silverman, Choi and Peters 2007)(2). The idea that an inherited personality predisposition, temperament, produces enduring individual differences across the lifespan has been a pervasive assumption in the field (Kagan 1994(3)).

1. Buss, D. M. 1999. Human nature and individual differences: the evolution of personality, in L. A. Pervin and O. P. John (eds.), Handbook of personality: theory and research, 2nd edn, pp. 31–56. New York: Guilford
2. Silverman, I., Choi, J. and Peters, M. 2007. The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: data from 40 countries, Archives of Sexual Behaviour 36: 261–8
3.Kagan, J. 1994. Galen’s prophecy: temperament in human nature. New York: Westview Press

Susan Cloninger, “Conceptual issues in personality theory”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Kagan, Jerome
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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