Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Anxiety: Anxiety in psychology refers to a state of heightened apprehension, uncertainty, often accompanied by physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and tension. While fear is a response to an immediate threat, activating the fight-or-flight response, Anxiety, on the other hand, involves anticipation of future threats and is more diffuse. See also Fear, Psychological stress, Behavior, Arousal.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Twin Studies on Anxiety - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 370
Fear/anxiety/twin studies/Corr: In (…) the psychopathology literature, the distinction between fear and anxiety has been identified. A behavioural genetic study of ten major psychiatric disorders, in a sample of 5,600 twins (Kendler, Prescott, Myers and Neale 2003)(1) revealed the following findings:
(a) two major dimensions emerged, one relating to internalizing disorders (i.e., major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and phobia), the other to externalizing disorders (i.e., alcohol dependence, drug abuse/dependence, adult antisocial behaviour and conduct disorder);
(b) no differences in genetic and environmental influences for males and females, despite the large difference in prevalence rates;
(c) unique (i.e., non-shared family) environment effects for internalizing disorders;
(d) and, of most relevance to RST, the structure of genetic risk for internalizing disorders broken down into an ‘anxious-misery’ factor (i.e., depression, generalized disorder and panic) and a specific ‘fear’ factor (i.e., animal and situational phobia). Earlier, Prescott and Kendler (1998)(2) noted that mild depression and generalized anxiety do not appear to have distinct genetic etiologies, but rather a common genetic basis, perhaps a disposition to dysphoric mood which is shaped by individual experiences into symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. (See also, Kendler et al. (1992.)(3).
>Twin studies
, >Behavioral genetics, >Depression, >Heritability.

1. Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J. and Neale, M. C. 2003. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women, Archives of General Psychiatry 60: 929–37
2. Prescott. C. A. and Kendler, K. S. 1998. Do anxious and depressive states share common genetic factors?, European Neuropsychopharmacology 8 Suppl. 2: S76–S77
3. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C. and Eaves, L. J. 1992. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments?, Archives of General Psychiatry 49: 716–22

Philip J. Corr, „ The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Twin Studies
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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