Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Anxiety: Anxiety in psychology refers to a state of heightened apprehension, uncertainty, often accompanied by physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and tension. While fear is a response to an immediate threat, activating the fight-or-flight response, Anxiety, on the other hand, involves anticipation of future threats and is more diffuse. See also Fear, Psychological stress, Behavior, Arousal.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Jeffrey A. Gray on Anxiety - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 351
Fear/anxiety/Gray: anxiolytic drugs anatagonize or reduce the behavioural effects (i.e., suppression of behaviour) associated with conditioned stimuli for punishment (Pun-CSs) and frustative non-reward (nonRew-CSs; i.e., the non-delivery of expected reward), as well as, but less strongly, novel stimuli. Noteworthy, was the relative absence of effects on behaviour controlled by unconditioned punishing or rewarding stimuli (i.e., innate stimuli). As discussed below, this evidence suggested that anxiolytic drugs acted on a system that was responsible for behavioural inhibition in reaction to conditioned signals of punishment, non-reward (frustration) and novelty. (1)
Corr I 357
GrayVsEysenck: Gray (1970)(2) argued that drugs that reduce clinical anxiety lower N and raise E scores, as does psychosurgery to the frontal cortex (whether caused by accident or surgical design) – both sets of findings suggest that a single anxiety dimension is a better account than two, separate, dimensions.

1. Gray, J. A. 1977. Drug effects on fear and frustration: possible limbic site of action of minor tranquillizers, in L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen and S. H. Snyder (eds), Handbook of psychopharmacology, vol. VIII, Drugs, neurotransmitters, and behavior, pp. 433–529. New York: Plenum Press
2. Gray, J. A. 1970. The psychophysiological basis of Introversion–Extraversion, Behaivour Research and Therapy 8: 249–66

Philip J. Corr, „ The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Gray, Jeffrey A.
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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