Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Expectancies: in psychology, Expectancies are cognitive anticipations about future events or outcomes, influencing perception and behavior. They shape individual experiences by guiding attention, interpretation, and emotional responses. Expectations can be formed through past experiences, social influences, and cognitive processes, impacting decision-making and overall well-being. See also Experience, Perception, Behavior, Attention, Interpretation, Emotions.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Yuichi Shoda on Expectancies - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 477
Expectancies/Shoda/Smith: Expectancies have always occupied a central role in cognitive conceptions of learning and behaviour (e.g., Bolles 1972(1); Tolman 1932(2)), and they are well represented in contemporary social-cognitive theories (Bandura1997).
frequently evoke expectancies, as when a student with facilitative anxiety anticipates that his arousal will enhance test performance.
Expectancies take a variety of forms. Stimulus-outcome expectancies represent a predictive relation between a stimulus and a later outcome. They are the basis for classical conditioning (i.e., the CS-UCS relation), as illustrated in the ability of situational cues to evoke automatic emotional reactions in many individuals.
The perceived relation between situational demands and personal resources is the basis for self-efficacy expectancies (Bandura1997)(3). A more generalized expectancy, locus of control, relates to individual differences in the tendency to see one’s outcomes as under the control of personal or situational influences (Rotter 1966)(4).
>Control processes/Shoda/Smith.

1. Bolles, R. C. 1972. Reinforcement, expectancy, and learning, Psychological Review 79: 394–409
2. Tolman, E. C. 1932.Purposive behaviour in animals and men. New York: Century
3. Bandura, A. 1986. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
4. Rotter, J. B. 1966. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external locus of control of reinforcement, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 80: 1–28

Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda, “Personality as a cognitive-affective processing system“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Shoda, Yuichi
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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