Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Self-esteem: in psychology, self-esteem refers to an individual's overall subjective evaluation of their own worth and value. It encompasses beliefs about oneself, such as feelings of competence, pride, and worthiness. It significantly influences motivation, behavior, and mental well-being. See also Self-knowledge, Self-consciousness, Self, Behavior, Motivation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Henri Tajfel on Self-Esteem - Dictionary of Arguments

Haslam I 171
Self-esteem/Tajfel: The focus on self-esteem can be traced back to the original social identity researchers – Henri Tajfel and John Turner – and their proposition that individuals strive to achieve or maintain a positive social identity (Tajfel and Turner, 1979)(1).
>Social identity theory/Tajfel
Oakes and Turner (1980(2) showed that the opportunity to discriminate on the Tajfel matrices (>Method/Tajfel) did indeed raise participants’ scores on a measure of self-esteem.
VsTajfel/VsOakes: subsequent reviews have criticized the use of measures of personal global self-esteem in these and other studies (see Hewstone et al., 2002(3); Long and Spears, 1997(4); Rubin and Hewstone, 1998(5)) since this seems to go against the more group-level spirit of social identity theory.
VsVs: a study led by Jackie Hunter and colleagues found evidence for enhanced collective esteem in a domain important to the ingroup after ingroup favouritism in a minimal group setting (Hunter et al., 1996)(6). Literature reviews also suggest reasonable support for the self-esteem hypothesis when such criteria are met (see Hewstone et al., 2002(3); Rubin and Hewstone, 1998(5), for reviews).
Problem: it is not clear whether enhancing group identity and esteem is the only or even most important mechanism that drives minimal ingroup bias (specifically the MD (maximum difference) strategy in the minimal group studies.
>Minimal proups/Tajfel, >Social identity.

1. Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1979) ‘An integrative theory of intergroup conflict’, in W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. pp. 33–48.
2. Oakes, P.J. and Turner, J.C. (1980) ‘Social categorization and intergroup behaviour: Does minimal intergroup discrimination make social identity more positive?’, European Journal of Social Psychology, 10: 295–301.
3. Hewstone, M., Rubin, M. and Willis, H. (2002) ‘Intergroup bias’, Annual Review of Psychology, 53: 575–604.
4. Long, K. and Spears, R. (1997) ‘The self-esteem hypothesis revisited: Differentiation and the disaffected’, in R. Spears, P.J. Oakes, N. Ellemers and S.A. Haslam (eds), The Social Psychology
5. Rubin, M. and Hewstone, M. (1998) ‘Social identity theory’s self-esteem hypothesis: A review and some suggestions for clarification’, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2: 40–62.
6. Hunter, J.A., Platow, M.J., Howard M.L. and Stringer, M. (1996) ‘Social identity and intergroup evaluative bias: Realistic categories and domain-specific self-esteem in a conflict setting’, European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 631–47.

Russell Spears and Sabine Otten,“Discrimination. Revisiting Tajfel’s minimal group studies“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Tajfel, Henri
Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017

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