|Groupthink: Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when a group of people strive for consensus without critically evaluating the consequences of their decisions. It is often caused by a desire to conform or to avoid conflict. Groupthink can lead to irrational or disastrous decisions, as members of the group may overlook or suppress dissenting opinions. See also Group behavior, Conformity._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Marlene Turner on Groupthink - Dictionary of Arguments
Haslam I 190
Group think /social identity/Pratkanis/Turner: Marlene Turner and Anthony Pratkanis proposed a social identity maintenance model [for group think]. Their model retained consensus-seeking at the heart of groupthink, but emphasized consensus of a particular type – namely, consensus around ‘a shared positive view of the functioning of the group’ (1998a(1): 212). They posited that the desire to achieve this type of consensus arises from two interactive (not additive) factors: (cohesion and collective threat, which in combination induce behaviours that do a better job of protecting the group’s self-image than ensuring sound decisions.
Haslam I 191
Cohesion/Pratkanis/Turner: Turner and Pratkanis (1998a)(1) drew on social identity and self-categorization theories (Abrams and Hogg, 1988(2); Hornsey, 2008(3); Tajfel and Turner, 1979)(4) to offer a particular definition of cohesion. Specifically, they suggest that cohesion arises when members identify with their group, such that membership in the group represents an important part of their self-concept. Thus identified, individuals seek to maintain a positive image of their group and are more reactive to potential threats to that image. >Goals/Pratkanis/Turner.
1. Turner, M.E. and Pratkanis, A.R. (1998a) ‘A social identity maintenance model of groupthink’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73: 210–35.
2. Abrams, D. and Hogg, M.A. (1988) Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
3. Hornsey, M.J. (2008) ‘Social identity theory and self-categorization theory: A historical review’, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2: 204–22.
4. Tajfel, H. and Turner, J. (1979) ‘An integrative theory of intergroup conflict’, in W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (eds), The Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole. pp. 33–47.
Dominic J. Packer and Nick D. Ungson, „Group Decision-Making. Revisiting Janis’ groupthink studies“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017