Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Experiment: artificial bringing about of an event or artificial creation of a state for testing a hypothesis. Experiments can lead to the reformulation of the initial hypotheses and the reformulation of theories. See also theories, measuring, science, hypotheses, Bayesianism, confirmation, events, paradigm change, reference systems.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Elliot Aronson on Experiments - Dictionary of Arguments

Haslam I 220
Experiment/Aronson: In the jigsaw method scenario students are first divided into small (five- or six-student) groups that are diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and academic achievement. One student is selected as leader. The day’s lesson is then divided into five or six discrete segments (e.g., in learning about a famous person; segmenting the person’s life into early years, education, professional life). Each student is assigned a segment to learn and is given the opportunity to become knowledgeable about the segment by with students from other groups assigned the same segment of the lesson. Students then return to their own jigsaw group and present the segment to the others. At the end of the session, they are quizzed to ensure they have mastery of the material. (Aronson et al. 1978(1). >Jigsaw method/Aronson.
Aronson: It is important to emphasize that the motivation of students is not necessarily altruistic; rather, it is primarily self-interest, which, in this case, happens also to produce outcomes that are beneficial to others. (Aronson and Bridgman, 2004(2): 427)
For the single stages of the experiment to investigate the effects of the Jigsaw classroom in elementary school classrooms in Austin see Blaney et al. (1977)(3). They showed an increase in liking for the members of their group, both within and across racial and ethnic group lines, and they exhibited greater increases in self-esteem than students in a control condition who received ‘education as usual’ that involved traditional, competitive teaching methods.
Lucker et al., (1977)(4) demonstrated changes in academic achievement in a unit on American history. Moreover, compared with students in traditional control classrooms, African American and Hispanic/Latino students in the jigsaw classroom performed significantly better on a standardized test, whereas White students performed equivalently well.

1. Aronson, E., Stephan, C., Sikes, J., Blaney, N. and Snapp, M. (1978) The Jigsaw Classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
2. Aronson, E. and Bridgeman, D. (2004) ‘Jigsaw groups and the desegregated classroom: In pursuit of common goals’, in E. Aronson (ed.), Readings about the Social Animal (9th edn). New York: Worth. pp. 423-34.
3. Blaney, N.T., Stephan, C., Rosenfield, D., Aronson, E. and Sikes, J. (1977) ‘Interdependence in the classroom: A field study’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 69: 139-46.
4. Lucker, G.W., Rosenfield, D., Sikes, J. and Aronson, E. (1977) ‘Performance in the interdependent classroom: A field study’, American Education Research Journal, 13: 115-23.

John F. Dovidio, „ Promoting Positive Intergroup Relations. Revisiting Aronson et al.’s jigsaw classroom“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Aronson, Joshua M.
Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017

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