Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Method: a method is a procedure agreed on by participants of a discussion or research project. In the case of violations of a method, the comparability of the results is in particular questioned, since these no longer come from a set with uniformly defined properties of the elements.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Toni Schmader on Method - Dictionary of Arguments

Haslam I 253
Method/stereotype threat/Forbes/Schmader: The contextualized frame that stereotype threat gives to performance gaps allows researchers to create ‘identity safe’ environments that avoid cuing stereotype threat. In the original laboratory studies, this was done by framing the task in a non-diagnostic way.
>Stereotype Threat
Later studies created identity safety by directly communicating an expectation that groups would perform equally well (Good et aL, 2008(1); Spencer et al., 1999(2)) or by retraining implicit stereotypes (Forbes and Schmader, 2010(3)). Because these methods of creating identity-safe environments are not always practical to implement in field settings, researchers have sought to test other interventions to reduce naturalistic experiences of stereotype threat.
Performance: (…)moving demographic questions to the end of an Advanced Placement exam boosted women’s performance on a calculus test, though the size and significance of these effects has been debated (i.e., the manipulation did not improve performance for minorities; Danaher and Crandall, 2008(4); Stricker and Ward, 2004(5)). Positive role models are also effective in both the lab and the field in combatting stereotype threat, changing implicit stereotypes, and increasing students’ self-efficacy (Dasgupta and Asgari, 2004(6); Marx and Goff, 2005(6); McIntyre et al., 2003(7), 2005(8)).
Coping strategies: in both the lab and the field, prompting students to affirm important values improves stigmatized students’ performance by mitigating stereotype threat (Martens et al., 2006)(9). In a remarkable field study at an elite university, minority students who completed brief self-affirmation exercises in their first semester in school showed improved grades up to two years later compared with those in a no-affirmation control condition (Cohen et al., 2006(10); Cohen et al., 2009(11); see also Miyake et al., 2010(12), and Sherman et aL, 2013(13), for similar studies with women in physics and middle-school students, respectively).

1. Good, C., Aronson, J. and Harder, J.A. (2008) Problems in the pipeline: Stereotype threat and women’s achievement in high-level math courses’, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29 (1): 17—28.
2. Spencer, S.J., Steele, C.M. and Quinn, D.M. (1999) ‘Stereotype threat and women’s math performance’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35:4—28.
3. Forbes, C.E. and Schmader, T. (2010) ‘Retraining attitudes and stereotypes to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99: 740—5 4.
4. Danaher, K. and Crandall, C.S. (2008) ‘Stereotype threat in applied settings re-examined’,
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38: 1639—55.
5. Stricker, L.J. and Ward, W.C. (2004) ‘Stereotype threat, inquiring about test takers’ ethnicity and gender, and standardized test performance’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34:665—93.
6 .Marx, D.M. and Goff, P.A. (2005) Clearing the air: The effect of experimenter race on target’s test performance and subjective experience’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(4): 645—57.
7. McIntyre, R.B., Paulson, R. and Lord, C. (2003) ‘Alleviating women’s mathematics stereo type threat through salience of group achievements’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39: 8 3—90.
8. McIntyre, R.B., Lord, C.G., Gresky, D.M., Ten Eyck, L.L., Frye, G.D.J. and Bond Jr., C.F. (2005) ‘A social impact trend in the effects of role models on alleviating women’s mathematics stereotype threat’, Current Research in Social Psychology, 10: 116—36.
9. Martens, A., Johns, M., Greenberg, J. and Schimel, J. (2006) ‘Combating stereotype threat: The effect of self-affirmation on women’s intellectual performance’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42: 236—43.
10. Cohen, G .L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N. and Master, A. (2006) Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention’, Science, 313: 1307—10.
11. Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Apfel, N. and Brzustoski, P. (2009) ‘Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap’, Science, 324:400—3.
12. Miyake,A., Kost-Smith, L.E., Finkeistein, N.D., Pollock, S.J., Cohen, G.L. and Ito, T.A. (2010)
‘Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: A classroom study of values affirmation’, Science, 330: 1234—7.
13. Sherman, D.K., Hartson, K.A., Binning, K.R., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Taborsky-Barba,
S. ... and Cohen, G.L. (2013) ‘Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: How self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104: 591—618.

Toni Schmader and Chad Forbes, “Stereotypes and Performance. Revisiting Steele and Aronson’s stereotypes threat experiments”, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Schmader, Toni
Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017

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