Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Motivation: Motivation is the driving force behind the actions of a person. It is what energizes and compels the person to take action. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. See also Motives, Causation, Actions, Interest, Action theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Nick Bostrom on Motivation - Dictionary of Arguments

I 162
Motivation/superintelligence/Bostrom: Suppose that an AI were designed to have as its final goal that a particular red button inside a command bunker never be pressed. What is essential is that the AI believes that the button will more likely remain unpressed if the AI continuously acts in the principal’s interest than if it rebels.
Rewarding: Instead of trying to endow an AI with a final goal that refers to a physical button, one could build an AI that places final value on receiving a stream of “cryptographic reward tokens.”
These would be sequences of numbers serving as keys to ciphers that would have been generated before the AI was created and that would have been built into its motivation system.
I 354
Creating a cipher certain to withstand a superintelligent code-breaker is a nontrivial challenge. For example, traces of random numbers might be left in some observer’s brain or in the microstructure of the random generator, from whence the superintelligence can retrieve them; or, if pseudorandom numbers are used, the superintelligence might guess or discover the seed from which they were generated. Further, the superintelligence could build large quantum computers, or even discover unknown physical phenomena that could be used to construct new kinds of computers.
Problem: The AI could wire itself to believe that it had received a reward tokens, but this should not make it wirehead if it is designed to want the reward tokens (as opposed to wanting to be in a state in which it has certain beliefs about the reward tokens).
[Problem: The AI has to develop an idea of a world it is living in: >Environment/AI Research
I 176
Motivation selection:
-Direct specification: The system is endowed with some directly specified motivation system, which might be consequentialist or involve following a set of rules.
-Domesticity: A motivation system is designed to severely limit the scope of the agent’s ambitions and activities.
-Indirect normativity: could involve rule-based or consequentialist principles, but is distinguished by its reliance on an indirect approach to specifying the rules that are to be followed or the values that are to be pursued. >Values/superintelligence/Bostrom.
-Augmentation: One starts with a system that already has substantially human or benevolent motivations, and enhances its cognitive capacities to make it superintelligent.
>AI takeover/Yudkowski, >Control/superintelligence/Bostrom, >Goals/superintelligence/Omohundro.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Bostrom I
Nick Bostrom
Superintelligence. Paths, Dangers, Strategies Oxford: Oxford University Press 2017

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