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Social movements: Social movements are organized, collective efforts by a group of individuals or organizations to bring about or resist social, political, or cultural change. They can be social, political, economic, or cultural in nature, and often involve protests, demonstrations, boycotts, and lobbying. See also Society, Politics, Community.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Political Philosophy on Social Movements - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 268
Social Movements/Politial Philosophy/West: (...) the (...) neutral term 'social movement' , which now spans the disciplines of sociology and political science, reflects the ideological impact of the civil rights, anti-war and student activism of the 1960s (Brand, Büsser and Rucht, 1986(1): 35—7; Gamson, 1975(2); Oberschall, 1973(3); Piven and Cloward, 1977(4)).
Pakulski: Social movements, according to Pakulski's useful definition, are 'recurrent patterns of collective activities which are partially institutionalized, value oriented and anti-systemic in their form and symbolism' (1991(5): xiv).
Social movements can be recognized as significant achievements on the part of previously isolated and powerless social groups. In other words, social movements solve the 'problem of collective action'; for a particular constituency they achieve the collective good of political action (Taylor, 1987)(6).
Institutions: (...) the concept of social movement extends the scope of political studies by recognizing political actions beyond the sphere of institutionalized politics. Since social movement activity significantly influences and may serve to transform institutionalized political forms, it must be acknowledged as a proper element of the political field.
Cf. >Institutions.
Eisenstein: New social movements directly attack intrinsically political features of civil society, such as patriarchy, homophobia and racism (Eisenstein, 1984)(7). They seek changes independently of, as well as through, state action. Social movements are, in sum, both important determinant of institutionalized politics and a crucial constituent of the relatively autonomous politics of civil society.
Gaus I 269
Empirical material for the studies of new social movements: (Kriesi et al., 1995(8); Rucht, 1991(9)).

1. Brand, K.-W., D. Büsser and D. Rucht (1986) Aufbruch in eine andeæ Gesellschaft: Neue soziale Bewegungen in der Bundesrepublik, 3rd rev. edn. Frankfurt and New York: Campus.
2. Gamson, William A. (1975) The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
3. Oberschall, Anthony (1973) Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
4. Piven, F. F. and R. A. Cloward (1992) 'Normalizing collective protest'. In A. Morris and C. M. Mueller, eds, Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
5. Pakulski, Jan (1991) Social Movements: The Politics of Moral Protest. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
6. Taylor, Michael (1987) The Possibility of Co-operation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
7. Eisenstein, Hester (1984) Contemporary Feminist Thought. London: Allen and Unwin.
8. Kriesi, H. , R. Koopmans, J. W. Dyvendak and M. G. Giugni (1995) New Social Movements in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
9. Rucht, Dieter, ed. (1991) Research on Social Movements: The State of the Art in Western Europe and the USA. Boulder, CO: Westview.

West, David 2004. „New Social Movements“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Political Philosophy
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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