Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

Home Screenshot Tabelle Begriffe

Intelligence: intelligence is generally, the ability of solving problems mentally. A large number of components are involved, which makes a strict definition of intelligence impossible. Typical problems are pattern recognition, continuation of sequences, paraphrasing of language utterances. See also computation, artificial intelligence, strong artificial intelligence, thinking, knowledge, understanding, memory, psychology.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence - Dictionary of Arguments

IV 251
Intelligence/Gould: intelligence tests were popular in the early 20th century and were carried out on recruits.
IV 253
Singapore: in 1983 Singapore launched a campaign to encourage educated people to have more children, Prime Minister Le Kuan Yew feared a decline in intelligence among the population.
GouldVs: fallacy: women with lower intelligence had on average more children. The reason was that less education also meant less sex education. Gould: but the sex education has nothing to do with intelligence.
IV 255
Intelligence/twin research/Arthur Jensen, 1969: "Standard number": intelligence is said to be 80% hereditary. (1)
IV 256
Cyril Burt, great old man of genetics, 1909: Cyril Burt's "study" (with 50 pairs of twins) is one of the most complete forgeries in the history of science. (2)
Heredity/Gould: Lee Kuan Yew misinterpreted the following: wrong equation of "hereditary" with "fixed and inevitable".
Definition Heredity/Gould: heredity measures how much variation in the appearance of a feature within a population can be held responsible for the genetic differences, e. g. eye colour, height, IQ.
A kind of vision defect can be 100% hereditary, but can be completely compensated by glasses.
Even if the IQ is 80% hereditary, it can still be improved through education.
Cf. >Arthur Jensen

1. Arthur R. Jensen: How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? In: Harvard Educational Review. Bd. 39, Nr. 1, Winter 1969, S. 1–123.
2. Burbridge: Burt's twins: A question of numbers. In: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Volume 42, Nr. 4, S. 335–352, 2006.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

Send Link
> Counter arguments against Gould
> Counter arguments in relation to Intelligence

Authors A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z  

Concepts A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z