Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Models, philosophy, logic: A model is obtained when a logical formula provides true statements by inserting objects instead of the free variables. One problem is the exclusion of unintended models. See also model theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Stuart Kauffman on Models - Dictionary of Arguments

I 415
Model/economy/Kauffman: in economics and other systems there are an enormous number of niches. What gives rise to these? According to which rules do workstations, tasks, functions and products connect to networks?
, >Rules, >Progress, >Society.
Thesis: we can view goods and services as sign strings that affect other strings. Hammer acts on nails and two boards.
>Character strings, >Functions/Kauffman.
I 416
Model/Kauffman: what use are models if we do not know the true laws of complementarity and substitutability?
Their benefit is that we can recognize the kind of things we would expect in the real world if our model is in the same "universality class". ((s) cf. >Brandom on singular terms, predicates in relation to the degree of generality).
Definition Universality class/physics/Kauffman: Class of models that show the same robust behavioral patterns.
>Models, cf. >Model theory.
Lambda Calculus/Church/Kauffman: System for performing universal calculations. Also Emil Post. Universal system and Turing machine, all these systems are equivalent.
>Lambda calculus, >Turing machine.
I 417
Model/Post/Kauffman: For example, a system where the left-hand list of sign strings represents the "grammar", each pair of sign strings specifies a substitution.
I 419
The sign strings can then interact with each other, like enzymes on substrates.
Arbitrary rules can lead to non arbitrary ones!
>Arbitraryness, >Contingency, >Necessity.
The number of possible grammars is infinite.
>Grammar, >Infinity, >Countability, >Overcountable.
Complexity: if the right links of the sign strings are shorter than the left ones, the "soup" will react inert, because all the chains become shorter, and no longer fit on an "enzymatic digit".
The different regions form universality classes.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

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