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Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Values: Values are fundamental beliefs that guide behavior, representing principles individuals hold dear, influencing choices and attitudes towards oneself, others, and the world. See also Beliefs, Behavior, Individuals, Community, Norms, Principles, Decisions, Decision-making processes, Decision theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Friedrich Nietzsche on Values - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 378
Values/Nietzsche/Höffe: [Nietzsche takes] (...) a threefold "revaluation of all values":
1) First of all, values, which are highly valued so far, are devalued, because they either lost their creative power or their right. The main point of criticism is the morality of charity, which is exposed as the morality of the "wayward, disgruntled, and the ones badly off course", as a resentment of the weak. In addition, it is discredited with the argument that, despite its appearance, it springs even from a will to power, namely the will of those who proclaim the morality of slavery, the priests.
2) After the second revaluation, certain traditional values are not devalued, but are given a new reason for appreciation. Even those ideals in which one tends to think of Christianity criticized by Nietzsche, the ascetic ideals, are not rejected all around: "With artists" they mean "nothing or too much; with philosophers and scholars something like weather and instinct for the most favorable preconditions of high spirituality".(1)
3) Finally a previous ranking of values is reversed. On the one hand something, which is highly valued so far in many places, the supernatural, is declared to be untrue. According to Nietzsche, there is no beyond for nature, no more metaphysics. On the other hand, the rank which the hitherto highly esteemed morality, the morality of pity and slavery, deserved, is now given to the "master morality", the "aristocratic equation of value" of good with nobility, power, beauty, and love of God, taken from archaic Greekism.

1. F. Nietzsche, Genealogie der Moral, 3. Abhandlung, Nr. 1
- - -
Ries II 51
Revaluation of the values/Nietzsche: first semi-conscious representatives: Sophists, Antisthenes, the Cynics. The twilight begins this task with a "work of depth".
>Sophists, >Commentaries on the sophists.
Ries II 75
Values/Beyond Good and Evil/Nietzsche: serious equation of truth and good. Illusion: the things of the highest value must have a different, own origin. Illusionary world.

1. F. Nietzsche, Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2.
Danto III 201
Values/Slave moral/Master's moral/Nietzsche/Danto: Resentment/Slave moral: the slave fears not only the malice of the master and plays it up: he resents (resentment) the strength of the master as well as his own relative powerlessness.
He cannot act out his hostility on the paths open to the aristocrats. Slave's strategy: to get the master to accept the slave's list of values and to judge himself from the slave's perspective. Eventually, the master becomes evil in his own eyes.
Cf. >Master/slave dialectic.
Danto: the revaluation of values is made possible by the work of religion. Religion was the reason why the strong were bent under the yoke of a limited number of commandments, which they had to endure cruelly. Religion acted as a means of revenge that the unwilling humbly took hold of. When he was still powerful, the aristocrat had always held other things in high esteem.
Danto III 202
Through his behavior, the aristocrat initially showed contempt for the worldview of the (Christian) religion and for the intentions of the priestly resentment.
Now the priests are the worst enemies because they are the most powerless.(1) They cultivate the resentment to its highest degree. Their revaluation of values is ultimately an act of spiritual revenge.(2)

1. F. Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral, KGW VI. 2, p. 280.
2. Ibid. p. 281.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005

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