Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Method: a method is a procedure agreed on by participants of a discussion or research project. In the case of violations of a method, the comparability of the results is in particular questioned, since these no longer come from a set with uniformly defined properties of the elements.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Jean Piaget on Method - Dictionary of Arguments

Slater I 57
Method/Piaget: Although there is an overarching goal in each of his investigations – for example to discover how children develop the ability to think about mathematics and logic – most of his studies do not use a detailed “script” that the experimenter follows in exactly the same way for every child. Instead, the detailed interactions and specific challenges are adapted to the moment by moment responses of the child.
Data/problems: the data from is early studies – in the 1920s – are limited to handwritten notes taken in “real time”.
VsPiaget: the data base for any specific study is typically generated by a relatively small and arbitrary sample of children – often Piaget’s own children – so that generalizations made from these studies are not on very solid statistical ground. Indeed, many of Piaget’s pioneering investigations would probably be rejected from most modern journals on methodological grounds of sample size, non-standard measurement, and lack of inter-rater reliability!
Nevertheless, many of Piaget’s experiments have been repeated. When procedures are executed in exactly the same way as Piaget described them, the results are almost always the same.
VsPiaget: However, in many cases, when small changes are made (…) one often finds results that challenge Piaget’s theoretical interpretation. E.g., >Classes/Piaget.
Slater I 58
Researchers found that a slight change in the wording of the problem leads to substantial improvement in children’s performance.
General problem/VsPiaget: not the reproducibility, but the theoretical interpretation of the experiments has proven to be problematic.
Slater I 59
Today’s theories of cognitive development are stated in the form of computational models of the mental processes that are implemented in the human brain’s neural networks (Elman, 2005(1); Klahr, 2004(2); Rakison & Lupyan, 2008(3)).

1. Elman, J. L. (2005). Connectionist models of cognitive development: where next? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 111–117.
2. Klahr, D. (2004). New kids on the connectionist modeling block. Developmental Science, 7, 165–166.
3. Rakison, D. H., & Lupyan, G. (2008). Developing object concepts in infancy: An associative learning perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 73, 1–110.

David Klahr, ”Revisiting Piaget. A Perspective from Studies of Children’s Problem-solving Abilities”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Piag I
J. Piaget
The Psychology Of The Child 2nd Edition 1969

Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012

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