Economics Dictionary of Arguments

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Civilization: A civilization is an advanced human society characterized by complex social, cultural, and technological development, often marked by achievements in areas like art, science, governance, and architecture. It denotes a high level of cultural sophistication.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

J.-J. Rousseau on Civilization - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 272
Civilisation/Rousseau/Höffe: In civilization "a child commands the adults, a fool commands wise men and a handful of rich
Höffe I 273
command the mass of the hungry" (Second Treatise, Part 2)(1).
According to Rousseau, the combination of property and state protection is the cause of the many crimes and wars and the countless miseries that have marked the history of mankind up to now. Above all, innate freedom has been irrevocably destroyed.
, >Economic theories on crime, >State, >Freedom.
Rousseau does recognise the advantage of civilisation, education and a more intensive, i.e. not just saturated, existence.
Höffe: What a superficial reading still attributes to him today - a "return to nature" - he does not demand. Although he stirs up the longing for a natural life, he considers its repetition illusory, if only because the developments once introduced cannot be taken back. However, it is possible to correct wrong developments and work towards a new naturalness. Only in this way, as a mirror and critic, does nature serve as a model.

1. Rousseau, Discours sur l'inégalité parmi les hommes, 1755

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rousseau I
J. J. Rousseau
Les Confessions, 1765-1770, publ. 1782-1789
German Edition:
The Confessions 1953

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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