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Fairness: Fairness is the quality of being just and impartial. It is the principle of treating all people equally, regardless of their race, gender, religion, social status, or any other factor. See also Justice, Community, Behavior.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

John Rawls on Fairness - Dictionary of Arguments

I 108
Fairness/Principles/Rawls: our principles of justice concerned institutions and the basic structure of a society. When it comes to individuals, the principle of fairness is relevant.
I 110
Individuals/Principles: this is, among other things, about what obligations we have. However, a certain basic structure of a company to be established is assumed from the outset.
Rawls: here it can be interpreted without major distortions in such a way that the duties and tasks presuppose a moral conception of institutions, and that the content of equitable institutions must therefore be determined before demands can be made on individuals.
I 111
Right/legality/conformity/Rawls: intuitively, we can say that the notion of being right is synonymous with one's being consistent with those principles which, in a society's initial state, would be recognised as being applied to the relevant problems.
If we accept that, we can equate fairness with rightness.
Individuals/fairness: first of all, we must distinguish between obligations and natural duties.
>Duties
, >Natural duties.
Principle of fairness: requires a person to fulfil his obligations as established by an institution, under two conditions:
1) The institution is fair, i. e. the institution fulfils the two principles of justice
>Principles/Rawls.
I 112
2) The arrangement has been voluntarily approved. This means that those who have agreed have a right to expect this from others who benefit from this arrangement(1).
>Reciprocity.
It is wrong to assume that justice as fairness or contract theories would generally follow that people have an obligation to unjust regimes.
>Justice.
VsLocke/Rawls: Locke in particular was wrongly criticized for this: the necessity of further background assumptions was overlooked(2).
>J. Locke, >Contract Theory, >Contracts.

1. See H.L.A. Hart „Are There Any Natural Rights?“, Philosophical Review, Vol. 64, (1955) p. 185f.
2. See Locke's thesis that conquest does not create justice: Locke, Second treatise of Government, pars. 176, 20.)

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rawl I
J. Rawls
A Theory of Justice: Original Edition Oxford 2005


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