James Surowiecki on Thinking - Dictionary of Arguments
Thinking/Problems Surowiecki: I divide problems here in three ways:
1. cognitive problems for which there is a solution, such as who wins the final or how many copies of a particular book are sold, e. g. how high the probability is that a certain drug will be approved by the drug authority.
Perhaps there is not only one correct answer here, but we will be able to distinguish which answers are better than others.
2. coordination problems: this concerns the coordination of behaviour, e.g. in a market, when using the subway, when looking for an apartment, etc. How do buyers and sellers get together?
3. cooperation problems: how can cooperation be brought together despite mistrust and self-interest? For example, action against pollution, a general understanding of the appropriate level of wages and salaries.
Coordination problems: it is not enough for an individual to find the solution for himself/herself, he/she must take into account what others think is right. (...) Rules have only a limited influence. Solutions must come from the bottom.
Cognitive tasks/Surowiecki: the flow of information in companies should never be controlled by organisational charts. Wrong decisions become more likely the more the power is entrusted to a single person. Internal (information) markets are a possible instrument for solving such problems._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Die Weisheit der Vielen: Warum Gruppen klüger sind als Einzelne und wie wir das kollektive Wissen für unser wirtschaftliches, soziales und politisches Handeln nutzen können München 2005