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Emotions: A. philosophy of mind is usually defined by examples such as joy, fear, anger in order to distinguish it from other internal states. It is controversial whether emotions are triggered solely by external circumstances. See also sensations, perception, mental states, mind states, consciousness, stimuli, introspection, other minds. B. In psychology, emotion is a complex, subjective experience characterized by physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and a cognitive appraisal. Emotions influence mood, motivate behavior, and play a crucial role in social interactions.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Rainer Reisenzein on Emotions - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 56
Emotions/function/psychological Theories/Reisenzein/Weber: during the past twenty-five years, the view has increasingly increasingly gained acceptance that,(…) emotions are overall adaptive. The adaptive effects of emotions are their (evolutionary) functions: the reasons why the emotion system came into existence in the first place.
>Evolution
, >Selection, >Adaption.
The two main, over-arching functions of emotions are widely thought to be the motivational and the informational functions of emotions (e.g., Frijda 1994)(1).
>Motivation.
A. The motivational function of emotions consists in their adaptive effects on motivation (the action goals of the person) and, thereby, on action itself.
Corr I 57
There can be little doubt that emotions influence motivation partly through the hedonistic route (see e.g., Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall and Zhang 2007(2)). However, many emotion theorists believe that this is neither the only nor even the most important route from emotion to action (e.g., Frijda 1986(3); McDougall 1928(4); Lazarus 1991(5); Weiner 1995(6)). Rather, according to these theorists, at least some emotions (e.g., fear) evoke adaptive action tendencies (e.g., to flee or to avoid) directly, that is, without the mediation of hedonistic desires (see Reisenzein 1996(7)).
B. The informational function of emotions consists in their making adaptively useful information available and/or salient to other sub-systems of personality (e.g., Forgas 2003(8); Schwarz and Clore 2007(9); Slovic, Peters, Finucane and MacGregor 2005(10)).


1. Frijda, N. H. 1994. Emotions are functional, most of the time, in P. Ekman and R. J. Davidson (eds.), The nature of emotion, pp. 112–36. Oxford University Press
2. Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., DeWall, C. N. and Zhang, L. 2007. How emotion shapes behaviour: feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation, Personality and Social Psychology Review 11: 167–203
3. Frijda, N. H. 1986. The emotions. Cambridge University Press
4. McDougall, W. 1928. An outline of psychology, 4th ed. London: Methuen
5. Lazarus, R. S. 1991. Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press
6. Weiner, B. 1995. Judgments of responsibility: a foundation for a theory of social conduct. New York: Guilford
7. Reisenzein, R. 1996. Emotional action generation, in W. Battmann and S. Dutke (eds.), Processes of the molar regulation of behaviour, pp. 151–65. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers
8. Forgas, J. P. 2003. Affective influences on attitudes and judgments, in R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, and H. H. Goldsmith (eds.), Handbook of affective sciences, pp. 596–618. Oxford University Press
9. Schwarz, N. and Clore, G. L. 2007. Feelings and phenomenal experiences, in A. W. Kruglanski and E. T. Higgins (eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles, 2nd edn, pp. 385–407. New York: Guilford Press
10. Slovic, P., Peters, E., Finucane, M. L. and MacGregor, D. G. 2005. Affect, risk, and decision making, Health Psychology 24: 35–40


Rainer Reisenzein & Hannelore Weber, “Personality and emotion”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Reisenzein, Rainer
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018


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