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Distinctions: Distinctions are differences between things. They are important for making sense of the world and making informed decisions. See also Order, Levels, Systems, Structures, Methods, Knowledge, Knowledge representation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Michael Rutter on Distinctions - Dictionary of Arguments

Slater I 206
Distinctions/order/forms of thinking/Rutter: (Rutter 1987)(1): it is a critical question as to whether (…) factors represent something distinct from widely established (…) factors (…) or the positive pole of bi-polar dimensions. In other words, has something “new” been identified or are we rediscovering the full range of key variables that relate to adaptation along a continuum from negative to positive? In a well-known passage on the utility of naming the opposite poles of the same underlying dimension, Rutter discussed the value of ”up” and “down” the stairs as distinct in connotation from “up” and “not-up.” He argues that distinct words focus attention on where the action may be and may well carry different connotations. More importantly, he notes that the meaning is in the functional processes and not simply in designating the positive or negative pole of a bi-polar dimension.
, >Levels, >Classification.
[E.g.,] Inoculations are described as protective because their purpose is directed at stimulating the immune system to make antibodies that will fend off more serious invasions by infectious agents. Compromised immune function (perhaps from malnutrition), on the other hand, would be described in terms of vulnerability because the functional significance is to exacerbate the risk for ill health or poor response to infection.

1. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316—331.

Ann S. Masten, “Resilience in Children. Vintage Rutter and Beyond”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Rutter, Michael
Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012

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