Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Similarity: Similarity is the conformity of one or more - but not all - properties of two or more objects. See also Identity, Equality, Properties, Predicates, Predication, Identification, Descriptions.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

W.V.O. Quine on Similarity - Dictionary of Arguments

V 33
Perception/Similarity/Quine: transition from perception to perception similarity (perc.sim.) makes perception itself disappear - ontological clarity.
Similarity: three digit: Episode a resembles b more than c - perception similarity: in contrast, bundle of dispositions of 2nd order (to respond).
>Perception
, >Dispositions, >Ontology.
V 35
Similarity/Quine: bundle of behavioral dispositions of 2nd order - relative: e.g. red ball, yellow rose - red rose, red scarf: depends on reward whether ball and rose are similar - perception similarity: if four-digit relation, then "viewpoint" superfluous - learning: here, there must be different degrees of similarity! - Otherwise any enhanced relation would equally be conditioned on every future episode, because they would all be equally similar - from that follows that perception similarity standards are innate.
V 37
Classes: do not explain similarity: an object does not have any more class memberships in common with another one than with any third one.
V 39
Similarity/Quine: Episodes: three types of similarity:
1) reception similarity: has to do only with input variables
2) behavioral similarity: ultimately definable by total quantity of fibers.
3) perception similarity: somehow in the middle between 1st and 2nd inner state: may be determined by previous stimuli, but not by the present ones! - Reason: perceptual similarity standards are subject to change (through more reward).
- - -
VII (a) 12ff
Meaning/Quine: problems: a) "having a meaning", b) equality of meaning: we can explore the latter via behavior, without having to adopt meaning as an entity.
>Meaning.
---
Lauener XI 108f
Similarity/Logic/Set Theory/Classes/Quine/Lauener: similarity has a dubious logic status: sets do not help in explaining:
Lauener XI 109
Things can be freely combined to sets - any two things are common elements of the same number of classes as any other two things - therefore it is not possible to reflect "a is more similar to b than to c" by "a and b together belong to more sets than a and c".

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Quine I
W.V.O. Quine
Word and Object, Cambridge/MA 1960
German Edition:
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Quine II
W.V.O. Quine
Theories and Things, Cambridge/MA 1986
German Edition:
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Quine III
W.V.O. Quine
Methods of Logic, 4th edition Cambridge/MA 1982
German Edition:
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Quine V
W.V.O. Quine
The Roots of Reference, La Salle/Illinois 1974
German Edition:
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Quine VI
W.V.O. Quine
Pursuit of Truth, Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Quine VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Quine VII (a)
W. V. A. Quine
On what there is
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (b)
W. V. A. Quine
Two dogmas of empiricism
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (c)
W. V. A. Quine
The problem of meaning in linguistics
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (d)
W. V. A. Quine
Identity, ostension and hypostasis
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (e)
W. V. A. Quine
New foundations for mathematical logic
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (f)
W. V. A. Quine
Logic and the reification of universals
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (g)
W. V. A. Quine
Notes on the theory of reference
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (h)
W. V. A. Quine
Reference and modality
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (i)
W. V. A. Quine
Meaning and existential inference
In
From a Logical Point of View, , Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Designation and Existence, in: The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939)
German Edition:
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982

Quine IX
W.V.O. Quine
Set Theory and its Logic, Cambridge/MA 1963
German Edition:
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Quine X
W.V.O. Quine
The Philosophy of Logic, Cambridge/MA 1970, 1986
German Edition:
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Quine XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York 1969
German Edition:
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

Quine XIII
Willard Van Orman Quine
Quiddities Cambridge/London 1987

Q XI
H. Lauener
Willard Van Orman Quine München 1982


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2024-03-05
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