|Method: a method is a procedure agreed on by participants of a discussion or research project. In the case of violations of a method, the comparability of the results is in particular questioned, since these no longer come from a set with uniformly defined properties of the elements._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Behaviorism on Method - Dictionary of Arguments
Slater I 29
Method/Behaviorism: By today’s standards, one might want to demonstrate the effects of conditioning in a multiple baseline reversal design (see Kazdin, 2011)(1) rather than in an uncontrolled single case study. >Vs Watson; >Conditioning/Watson, >Conditioning/psychological theories.
In the multiple baseline reversal design, for example, three baselines of varying lengths (e.g., three to five baseline trials) might be used in which the emotional response to the white rat (>Experiment/Watson) in the absence of the loud noise is first measured. In addition, these varying baselines might be applied to three or more children each.
Following the multiple baselines for each of the participants, the conditioning proper would begin and the pairings of the loud noise with the presentation of the white rat would proceed until the fear response was reliably established. For each child, the number of pairings may, and likely would, have differed due to the “conditionability” of the various participants (see Craske, 2003)(2). Finally, following successful conditioning, the white rat would be presented in the absence of the loud noise for a number of trials until the fear was reduced or “extinguished” (with the caveats noted above). This design is an extremely powerful design in that it is an A-B-A design executed with multiple participants across varying baseline intervals.
1. Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings (2nd edn). New York: Oxford University Press
2. Craske, M. G. (2003). Origins of phobias and anxiety disorders. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science
Thomas H. Ollendick, Thomas M. Sherman, Peter Muris, and Neville J. King, “Conditioned Emotional Reactions. Beyond Watson and Rayner’s Little Albert”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012