|Experiment: artificial bringing about of an event or artificial creation of a state for testing a hypothesis. Experiments can lead to the reformulation of the initial hypotheses and the reformulation of theories. See also theories, measuring, science, hypotheses, Bayesianism, confirmation, events, paradigm change, reference systems._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Albert Bandura on Experiments - Dictionary of Arguments
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Bobo doll study/experiment/aggression/Bandura: (Bandura 1961)(1) 72 children ranging from 37 to 69 months were rated by their teacher and an experimenter on aggressive behavior after having seen a film in which a person called Rocky displayed an aggressive behavior against a plastic doll (“Bobo doll”).
[The] children were put into groups of three on the basis of their aggression scores and gender. One member of each triplet was then randomly assigned to be in one of three groups: an experimental group exposed to an aggressive model; an experimental group exposed to a nonaggressive model; and a control group that was not exposed to any model. In each of the two experimental groups, half of the children were randomly paired with a same-sex model, and the other half of the children were paired with an opposite-sex model. Each child in the experimental groups was invited into a playroom and was seated in a corner of the room that was provisioned with supplies for designing pictures with potato prints and stickers. The experimenter then brought the adult model to the rooms opposite corner, which was provisioned with a five-foot inflated Bobo doll, a mallet, and tinker toys.
The experimenter then left the room. In the aggressive model condition, the model assembled the tinker toys for approximately one minute and then spent the remaining time aggressing against the Bobo doll. Children might be likely to engage in certain forms of aggression such as punching the Bobo doll, even without witnessing a model first engage in the behavior.
To provide children with the opportunity to learn behaviors that they would be unlikely to engage in without imitation, the model engaged in both physically and verbally aggressive acts with the Bobo doll that based on pilot testing) were determined to be behaviors that children would not naturally engage in with the Bobo doll.
After ten minutes, the children were brought to another room with toys and a doll set. The child was allowed to play with these objects for approximately two minutes but was then told by the experimenter that these were her best toys and that she would need to save them for other children. The child was brought into an adjacent room that was equipped with a number of toys that tended to elicit aggressive play (e.g., dart guns) or non-aggressive play (e.g., plastic farm animals). The room also contained a Bobo doll and mallet. The child played alone in this room for 20 minutes while being observed through a one-way mirror by trained assistants who coded the child’s behavior.
Coding categories reflected several kinds of child
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behavior that involved
- Imitative aggression
- Non-imitative aggression, and
- Imitative non-aggression
1) To what extend engaged in complete or partial imitation of the model’s aggressive behavior
2) Whether children in the aggressive model experimental group engaged in more non-imitative aggression than did the other groups;
3) Whether the sex of the model and sex of the child influenced the child’s engagement in imitative aggression.
Ad 1): Participants in the aggressive model experimental group were significantly more likely to engage in imitative aggression.
Ad 2): The children who had been exposed to the aggressive model engaged in more non-imitative aggression than did the children who had been exposed to the non-aggressive model.
Ad 3): Boys were more likely to reproduce the model’s physically aggressive acts than were girls, but boys and girls were equally likely to reproduce the model’s verbal aggression. Furthermore, boys who were exposed to the aggressive male model were more likely to engage in both imitative and non-imitative aggression than were girls who were exposed to the aggressive male model, whereas girls who were exposed to the aggressive female model were more likely to engage in imitative verbal aggression and non-imitative aggression than were boys who were exposed to the aggressive female model. >Learning/Bandura, >Aggression/psychological theories.
1. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575—582.
Jenifer E. Lansford, “Aggression. Beyond Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies“, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012