# Economics Dictionary of Arguments

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Equations: An equation in mathematics or physics is a statement that two expressions are equal. It is written using the equals sign (=). For example, 2+3=5 is an equation in mathematics, and F=ma is an equation in physics. Equations also describe the laws of nature. The reason is that causes and effects do not occur in equations. See also Causes, Effects, Natural laws.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Gottlob Frege on Equations - Dictionary of Arguments

II 29
Equation/language/assertion/Frege: the linguistic form of the equations is a declarative sentence. It contains the sense of a thought, e.g. 4 is the meaning of the expression 2 + 2, London is the meaning of the expression England’s capital.
>Assertion
, >Sentence, >Function, >Predication.
II 68
Equation/Frege: an equation is reversible ("is" is taken here as a mathematical equal sign). On the other hand: predication is irreversible, e.g. the Venus is nothing but the morning star. Falling under a concept: is not reversible -(> copula), >Symmetry, >Identity, >Equal sign.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

F I
G. Frege
Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik Stuttgart 1987

F II
G. Frege
Funktion, Begriff, Bedeutung Göttingen 1994

F IV
G. Frege
Logische Untersuchungen Göttingen 1993

> Counter arguments against Frege
> Counter arguments in relation to Equations