|Calculus: a calculus is a system of symbols for objects (which are not further specified) as well as rules for the formation of expressions by the composition of these symbols. There are other rules for transforming composite expressions into other expressions. As long as no specified objects are accepted for the individual symbols, the calculus is not interpreted, otherwise interpreted._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
artificial language / formal language/ counterpart / Mates: the statements of the natural language correspond the artificial formulas, as a counterpart, not as abbreviations - if symbols are associated with no sense, then it is an uninterpreted calculus.
Propositional calculus /p.c.: has no quantifiers._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Elementare Logik Göttingen 1969
Skeptical Essays Chicago 1981